Relationship between diagnostic imaging features and prognostic outcomes in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST)

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Ginevra Danti
Gloria Addeo
Diletta Cozzi
Nicola Maggialetti
Monica Marina Lanzetta
Gianluca Frezzetti
Antonella Masserelli
Silvia Pradella
Andrea Giovagnoni
Vittorio Miele

Keywords

Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors, Imaging Features, Computed Tomography, Prognostication System, Outcome

Abstract

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), the most frequent mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract, are a relatively recently described entity. GISTs can occur across any age but are more common in patients older than 50 years. GISTs most commonly are in the stomach (60-70%), followed by the small intestine (20%-30%); they also rarely occur in the abdominal cavity, such as in the mesentery, the omentum and the retroperitoneum. Contrast-enhanced multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) is the most largely used imaging modality for the localization, characterization and staging of GISTs. All patterns of enhancement on contrast-enhanced MDCT can be seen with GISTs, including hypoenhancing, isoenhancing, and hyperenhancing neoplasms. A lot of prognostication systems have been proposed for the risk stratification of GISTs. This review outlines the relationship between different diagnostic imaging features and prognostic outcomes in GISTs.

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