Hashimoto encephalopathy: a case report and a short revision of current literature: Hashimoto encephalopathy in pediatric age

Hashimoto encephalopathy: a case report and a short revision of current literature

Hashimoto encephalopathy in pediatric age


  • Paola Chiarello Department of Pediatrics, “Pugliese-Ciaccio” Hospital, Catanzaro, Italy
  • Valentina Talarico Department of Pediatrics, “Pugliese-Ciaccio” Hospital, Catanzaro, Italy
  • Angela Nicoletti Department of Pediatrics, “Pugliese-Ciaccio” Hospital, Catanzaro, Italy
  • Benedetta Rodio Unit of Pediatrics, Magna Graecia University of Catanzaro
  • Pier Paolo Arcuri Department of Radiology, “Pugliese-Ciaccio” Hospital, Catanzaro, Italy
  • Domenico Bosco Department of Neurology, Pugliese-Ciaccio Hospital, Catanzaro, Italy
  • Francesco Gigliotti Department of Pediatric Oncohematology, “Pugliese-Ciaccio” Hospital, Catanzaro, Italy
  • Maria Concetta Galati Department of Pediatric Oncohematology, “Pugliese-Ciaccio” Hospital, Catanzaro, Italy
  • Giuseppe Raiola Department of Pediatrics, “Pugliese-Ciaccio” Hospital, Catanzaro, Italy


Hashimoto encephalopathy, adolescent, treatment, Thyroiditis


Hashimoto encephalopathy (HE) is a rare but controversial entity encompassing a variety of neuropsychological presentations in the setting of autoimmune thyroid disease. HE, mostly described in adults, with a female‑to‑male ratio of 4:1, is a relatively rare entity in the pediatric population and probably under recognized as a cause of acute encephalopathy in children and adolescents. A number of pathogenetic mechanisms have been suggested. Female prevalence, presence of autoantibodies, fluctuating course, and response to immunomodulatory therapy suggest the autoimmune nature of the disease. Existing diagnostic criteria for adults require modification to be applied to children and adolescents, who differ from adults in their clinical presentations, clinical findings, autoantibody profiles, treatment response, and long-term outcomes. A combination of neurological findings, positive antithyroid autoantibodies, and responsiveness to steroids is diagnostic of HE. We add a new case of HE in an adolescent girl and review the current HE literature.


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How to Cite

Chiarello P, Talarico V, Nicoletti A, Rodio B, Arcuri PP, Bosco D, et al. Hashimoto encephalopathy: a case report and a short revision of current literature: Hashimoto encephalopathy in pediatric age. Acta Biomed [Internet]. 2020 Sep. 7 [cited 2024 Jul. 12];91(3):e2020087. Available from: https://www.mattioli1885journals.com/index.php/actabiomedica/article/view/10157