Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis


  • Michele Miraglia Del Giudice Department of Woman, Child and of General and Specialized Surgery. University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli" Naples, Italy
  • Annalisa Allegorico epartment of Pediatrics, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, Rome, Italy
  • Gian Luigi Marseglia Pediatric Clinic Department of Pediatrics, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy
  • Alberto Martelli Department of Pediatrics, G.Salvini Hospital, Garbagnate Milanese, Milan, Italy
  • Mauro Calvani UOC di Pediatria. Azienda Ospedaliera S. Camillo Forlanini, Roma, Italy
  • Fabio Cardinale Department of Pediatrics and Emergency, Pediatric Allergy and Pulmunology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliera-Universitaria Consorziale-Policlinico, Ospedale Pediatrico Giovanni XXIII, Bari, Italy.
  • Marzia Duse Department of Pediatrics, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy
  • Elena Chiappini Division of Paediatric Infectious Disease, Anna Meyer Children's University Hospital, Department of Health Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
  • Sara Manti UOC Broncopneumologia Pediatrica e Fibrosi Cistica, AOUP “Vittorio-Emanuele”, San Marco Hospital, Università di Catania, Catania, Italy
  • Claudio Cravidi Agenzia Tutela della Salute, ATS (National Healthcare System), Pavia, Italy
  • Maria Angela Tosca Allergy Center, Department of Pediatrics, Istituto G. Gaslini, Genoa, Italy
  • Carlo Caffarelli Clinica Pediatrica, Dipartimento di Medicina e Chirurgia, Università di Parma, Italy


allergic rhinoconjunctivitis; allergic rhinitis; ocular allergy; local allergic rhinitis; h1-antihistamines; intranasal corticosteroids; allergen immunotherapy


Allergic rhinitis (AR) is induced by an IgE-mediated immune reaction after allergen exposure. The typical symptoms are itching, nasal discharge, sneezing and nasal obstruction. The diagnosis is based on the concordance between allergic symptoms and diagnostic tests. The skin prick test (SPT) is recommended as the “gold standard” method. First generation H1-antihistamines are widely used for treatment of AR. Intranasal glucocorticosteroids are well tolerated and can be used also in paediatric age. Allergic rhinitis cannot be considered as an isolated pathology. Other atopic diseases (allergic conjunctivitis, atopic eczema, asthma) are commonly associated.


Bousquet J, Pfaar O, Togias A, et al. 2019 ARIA Care pathways for allergen immunotherapy. Allergy 2019;74:2087-2102.

Bousquet J, Heinzerling L, Bachert C, et al. Practical guide to skin prick tests in allergy to aeroallergens. Allergy 2012; 67: 18–24.

Gelardi M, Iannuzzi L, Quaranta N, Landi M, Passalacqua G. NASAL cytology: practical aspects and clinical relevance. Clin Exp Allergy 2016;46:785-792.

Miraglia Del Giudice M, Marseglia A, Leonardi S, et al. Allergic rhinitis and quality of life in children. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 2011;24(4 Suppl):25-28.

Ciprandi G, Marseglia GL, Castagnoli R, et al. From IgE to clinical trials of allergic rhinitis. Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2015;11:1321-1333.

Marseglia GL, Poddighe D, Caimmi D, et al. Role of adenoids and adenoiditis in children with allergy and otitis media. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 2009;9:460-464.

Kalpaklioglu F, Baccioglu A. Efficacy and safety of H1-antihistamines: an update. Antiinflamm Antiallergy Agents Med Chem 2012;11:230-7.

Progetto ARIA-Rinite Allergica e suo impatto sull’asma.

Cipriani F, Mastrorilli C, Tripodi S, et al. Diagnostic relevance of IgE sensitization profiles to eight recombinant Phleum pratense molecules. Allergy. 2018;73:673-682

Mastrorilli C, Posa D, Cipriani F, Caffarelli C. Asthma and allergic rhinitis in childhood: what's new. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2016;27:795-803.

Jang TY, Kim YH. Recent updates on the systemic and local safety of intranasal steroids. Curr Drug Metab 2016;17:992-996.

Ratner P, Van Bavel J, Mohar D, et al. Efficacy of daily intranasal fluticasone propionate on ocular symptoms associated with seasonal allergic rhinitis. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2015;114:141-7.

Licari A, Ciprandi G, Marseglia A, et al. Current recommendations and emerging options for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2014;10:1337-1347.

Licari A, Castagnoli R, Bottino C, Marseglia A, Marseglia G, Ciprandi G. Emerging drugs for the treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2016;21:57-67.

Licari A, Castagnoli R, De Filippo M, et al. Current and emerging biologic therapies for allergic rhinitis and chronic rhinosinusitis. Expert Opin Biol Ther 2020;20:609-619.

Van Cauwenberger P, De Belder T, Vermeiren J, Kaplan A. Global resources in allergy (GLORIA): allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis. Clin Exp All Rev 2003; 3: 46–50.

Leonardi A, Silva D, Perez Formigo D et al. Management of ocular allergy. Allergy 2019 ;74:1611-1630.

Pajno GB, Bernardini R, Peroni D, et al. Clinical practice recommendations for allergen-specific immunotherapy in children: the Italian consensus report. Ital J Pediatr 2017;43:13.




How to Cite

Miraglia Del Giudice M, Allegorico A, Marseglia GL, Martelli A, Calvani M, Cardinale F, et al. Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Acta Biomed [Internet]. 2020 Sep. 15 [cited 2024 Jul. 19];91(11-S):e2020007. Available from: