Analysis of Suicide Cases from Ankara Province: A 3-year Emergency Medical Services Experience

Analysis of Suicide Cases from Ankara Province: A 3-year Emergency Medical Services Experience


  • Eren Usul a:1:{s:5:"en_US";s:2:"dr";}
  • İshak Şan University of Health Sciences, Ankara City Hospital, Department of Emergency Medicine,
  • Semih Korkut University of Health Sciences, Kartal Dr Lütfi Kırdar Training and Research Hospital, Department of Emergency Medicine
  • Selvi Kayıpmaz University of Başkent, Department of Psychiatry
  • Burak Bekgöz Ankara City Hospital, Department of Emergency Medicine,


Suicide attempts;, Suicide, Ems, suicide method


Aim: While the term "completed suicide" refers to suicides that have resulted in death,"suicide attempts" refers to all attempts that do not result in death.Analyzing EMS cases is a reliable method of obtaining data on suicide attempts and completed suicides. We aimed to determine the relationship between the occurrence of cases on weekdays, weekends, public holidays or long holidays and case characteristics. Methodology: We evaluated EMS data of Ankara Province on completed suicide and suicide attempts including the date range 01.01.2017- 31.12.2019. We evaluated the data in terms of age, gender, mortality at the scene, and suicide method. In addition, we  evaluated the data according to the hour, day, month, season, and year of the cases. We classified the suicide cases according to their occurrence on weekdays, weekends, public holidays or long holidays.Results:  During the 3-year period included in the study, Ankara EMS assigned ambulances to a total of 940,546 cases. Of these cases, 8231 (0.875%) were suicide attempts and completed suicides. Suicide attempts were most frequent in males, in the 20-24 age group, in summer, in July, on Sundays, and between the hours 18:00 and 24:00. The most common method in suicide attempts was self-poisoning by drugs. Completed suicides were most frequent in males, in the 30-34 age group, in spring, in May, on Mondays and Tuesdays, and between the hours 18:00 and 24:00. Conclusion: We evaluated different characteristics of suicide cases of EMS. In Turkey, there are few studies in the EMS field on this issue. Therefore, we believe that this study will contribute to the epidemiological evaluation of suicides. We hope that results of this study will help to prevent both suicides and suicide attempts.


American Association of Suicidology. National Suicide Statistics. Official final data.Washington DC: American Association of Suicidology 2017.

Bachmann S Epidemiology of Suicide and the Psychiatric Perspective, Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018; 15(7).

Naghavi M. Global, regional, and national burden of suicide mortality 1990 to 2016: systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. BMJ. 2019 Feb 6;364.

Global Health Observatory, WHO. Age-standardized suicide rates (per 100 000 population).

Mental Health – Suicide Prevention, Global Data, WHO. (Accessed on 20.08.2020)

Suicide Rate Estimates, age-standardized estimates by country, Global Health Observatory (WHO). (Accessed on 18.082020)

Deaths: Final Data for 2017. National Vital Statistics Reports, Volume 68(9). NCHS. U.S. Department Of Health And Human Services. (Accessed on 18.08.2020)

Yakar M, Temurçin K, Kervankıran İ. Suicide in Turkey: its changes and regional differences. Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series. 2017 Mar 1;35(35):123-44.

Borges G, Bagge C, Cherpitel C ve ark. A meta-analysis of acute useof alcohol andthe risk of suicide attempt.Psychol Med. 2017; 47:949–57 pmid:27928972.

Bozsonyi K, Veres E veZonda T. The effect of public holidays on the suicide drive (frequency) in Hungary (1970-2002) Psychiatr Hung 2005; 20(6):463-71.

Canner J, Giuliano K, Selvarajah S and et al. Emergency department visits for attempted suicide and self-harm in the USA: 2006–2013. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences 2016;17:1–9.

Celbifl O, Özdemir B. Suicide cases underwent death examinations and autopsies between 1999-2002 in Malatya Forensic Medicine Group Directorate. Journal of İnönü University Medical Faculty 2005; 12:173-6.

Dilbaz N, Şengül Cb, Çetin Mk, et al. Evaluation of Suicide Attempts in a General Hospital Crisis Journal 2005; 13: 1-10

Kim E, Cho SE, Na KS, et al. Blue Monday Is Real for Suicide: A Case–Control Study of 188,601 Suicides. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior. 2019;49(2):393-400.

Ireland’s national suicide prevention strategy, Connecting for Life, 2015–2020. Department of Health. Dublin. Ireland. 2015.

Hocaoğlu Ç. Women and suicide. Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry 2009;10(EK-1): 7-8.

Katkıcı U, Dirlik M ve Özkök et al. Evaluation of suicide cases performed autopsies by our department. Adnan Menderes University Faculty of Medicine Journal 2003; 4:13-1517.

Martini M, da Fonseca RC, de Sousa MH, et al. Age and sex trends for suicide in Brazil between 2000 and 2016. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology. 2019; 54(7):857-60.

Kim CD, Lesage AD, Seguin M, et al. Seasonal differences in psychopathology of male suicide completers. Comprehensive Psychiatry. 2004 Sep 1;45(5):333-9.

Lotrakul M. Suicide in Thailand during the period 1998–2003. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. 2006;60(1):90-5.

Lygnugaryte-Griksiene A, Leskauskas D, Jasinskas N, et al. Factors influencing the suicide intervention skills of emergency medical services providers. Medical education online. 2017;22(1):1291869.

Mann JJ, Apter A, Bertolote J, et al. Suicide prevention strategies: a systematic review 2005;294(16):2064-74.

Mejías-Martín Y, Martí-García C, Rodríguez-Mejías C, et al. Suicide attempts in Spain according to prehospital healthcare emergency records. PLoSone. 2018; 13(4): e0195370.

Moreno-Küstner B, del Campo-Ávila J, Ruíz-Ibáñez A, et al. Epidemiology of suicidal behavior in Malaga (Spain): An approach from the prehospital emergency service. Frontiers in psychiatry. 2019;10:111.

National Strategy for Suicide Prevention Goals and Objectives for Action A Report of the U.S. Surgeon General and of the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention 2012; 283-07-2301-10.

Ozguven H, Sayıl I. Suicide attempts in Turkey: results of the WHO-EURO Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behaviour. Can J Psychiatry 2003;48(5), 324-329.

Parellada M, Saiz P, Moreno D, et al. Is Attempted Suicide Different İn Adolescent And Adults? Psychiatry Research. 2007;30: 1-7.

Sayıl, I, Oral, A, Güney S,et al. A study on suicide attempts in Ankara. Crisis magazine 1993;1:56-61.

Sharma Br, Gupta M, Sharma Ak, et al. Suicides In Northern India: Comparison Of Trends And Review Of Literature. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine 2007;14: 318-26.

Şenol V, Ünalan D, Avşaroğluları L, et al. Several cases caused by the Emergency Department. Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry 2005; 6: 19-29.

U.S. Suicide Statistics (2005), Suicide. 01.11.2019 tarihinde

Koo YW, Kõlves K, De Leo D. Profiles by suicide methods: an analysis of older adults. Aging & mental health. 2019;23(3):385-91.

Berecz R, Caceres M, Szlivka A ve ark. Reduced Completed Suicide Rate İn Hungary From 1990 To 2001: Relation To Suicide Methods. J Affect Disord 2005; 88: 235–38.

Värnik P. Suicide in the World, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2012;9(3):760-71.

Yip PS, Fu KW, Yang KC, et al. The Effects Of A Celebrity Suicide On Suicide Rates İn Hong Kong. Journal Of Affective Disorders. 2006; 93: 245–52.

World Health Organization (2017 DEC,15). Suicide 15.10.2017 tarihindeat: sitesindenindirildi.

World Health Organization (2000). Preventing Suicide A Resource For Media Professionals Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization.







How to Cite

Usul E, Şan İshak, Korkut S, Kayıpmaz S, Bekgöz B. Analysis of Suicide Cases from Ankara Province: A 3-year Emergency Medical Services Experience. Acta Biomed [Internet]. 2022 May 11 [cited 2024 Jul. 12];93(2):e2022083. Available from: