An overview of possible solutions putting an end to the COVID-19 pandemic COVID-19 solutions
Main Article Content
COVID-19; Solution; Epidemiology; Immunology; Artificial intelligence; Pandemic
In early 2020, a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV2, started to spread throughout the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as a pandemic on March 5, 2020. This 2020's pandemic has to date caused about 200,000 deaths and is still affecting the lives of people worldwide. No solitary solution can overcome the multidimensional challenges associated with the problem of COVID-19. Here, we provide a rapid overview of possible solutions offered by the epidemiological, pharmacological, immunological, and artificial intelligence fields of science on the COVID-19 pandemic. The simultaneous application of all these solutions might bring the world close to an end to the COVID-19 pandemic.
2. Organization WH. Pandemic influenza preparedness and response: a WHO guidance document: Geneva: World Health Organization; 2009.
3. Tom Orlik JR, Maeva Cousin, Jinshan Hong. Coronavirus Could Cost the Global Economy $2.7 Trillion. Here’s How: Bloomberg L.P.; 2020 [updated March 6. Available from: https://www.bloomberg.com/graphics/2020-coronavirus-pandemic-global-economic-risk/.
4. Lee J-W, McKibbin WJ, editors. Estimating the global economic costs of SARS. Learning from SARS: preparing for the next disease outbreak: workshop summary; 2004: National Academies Press Washington, DC.
5. Teasdale E, Santer M, Geraghty AWA, Little P, Yardley L. Public perceptions of non-pharmaceutical interventions for reducing transmission of respiratory infection: systematic review and synthesis of qualitative studies. BMC Public Health. 2014;14:589-.
6. Made Jvd. What is the best way to end the Covid-19 pandemic? 2020 [Available from: http://www.rfi.fr/en/europe/20200325-what-is-the-best-way-to-end-the-coivd-19-pandemic.
7. Meyerowitz-Katz G. Herd immunity is a fatal strategy we should avoid at all costs: The Gaurdian; 2020 [Available from: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/apr/17/herd-immunity-is-a-fatal-strategy-we-should-avoid-at-all-costs.
8. Hellewell J, Abbott S, Gimma A, Bosse NI, Jarvis CI, Russell TW, et al. Feasibility of controlling COVID-19 outbreaks by isolation of cases and contacts. Lancet Glob Health. 2020;8(4):e488-e96.
9. Organization WH. International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) 2020 [Available from: https://www.who.int/ictrp/search/en/.
10. Lee J. These 15 companies are working on coronavirus treatments or vaccines — here’s where things stand: Market Watch; 2020 [Available from: https://www.marketwatch.com/story/these-nine-companies-are-working-on-coronavirus-treatments-or-vaccines-heres-where-things-stand-2020-03-06.
11. Zhang L, Liu Y. Potential interventions for novel coronavirus in China: A systematic review. J Med Virol. 2020;92(5):479-90.
12. Wang M, Cao R, Zhang L, Yang X, Liu J, Xu M, et al. Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro. Cell Res. 2020;30(3):269-71.
13. Fantini J, Scala CD, Chahinian H, Yahi N. Structural and molecular modeling studies reveal a new mechanism of action of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2020:105960.
14. Gao J, Tian Z, Yang X. Breakthrough: Chloroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies. Biosci Trends. 2020;14(1):72-3.
15. Organization WH. Solidarity” clinical trial for COVID-19 treatments. World Health Organization (WHO) Situation reports Geneva: WHO[Accessed: 5 Apr 2020] Available from: https://www who int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/global-research-on-novel-coronavirus-2019-ncov/solidarity-clinical-trial-for-covid-19-treatments.
16. Megarbane B. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine to treat COVID-19: between hope and caution. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2020:1-2.
17. Sheahan TP, Sims AC, Graham RL, Menachery VD, Gralinski LE, Case JB, et al. Broad-spectrum antiviral GS-5734 inhibits both epidemic and zoonotic coronaviruses. Sci Transl Med. 2017;9(396).
18. Agostini ML, Andres EL, Sims AC, Graham RL, Sheahan TP, Lu X, et al. Coronavirus Susceptibility to the Antiviral Remdesivir (GS-5734) Is Mediated by the Viral Polymerase and the Proofreading Exoribonuclease. mBio. 2018;9(2):e00221-18.
19. Al-Tawfiq JA, Al-Homoud AH, Memish ZA. Remdesivir as a possible therapeutic option for the COVID-19. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2020:101615-.
20. Cao Y-C, Deng Q-X, Dai S-X. Remdesivir for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 causing COVID-19: An evaluation of the evidence. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2020:101647-.
21. Grein J, Ohmagari N, Shin D, Diaz G, Asperges E, Castagna A, et al. Compassionate Use of Remdesivir for Patients with Severe Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2020.
22. Huang X, Xu Y, Yang Q, Chen J, Zhang T, Li Z, et al. Efficacy and biological safety of lopinavir/ritonavir based anti-retroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Sci Rep. 2015;5:8528-.
23. Chu CM, Cheng VC, Hung IF, Wong MM, Chan KH, Chan KS, et al. Role of lopinavir/ritonavir in the treatment of SARS: initial virological and clinical findings. Thorax. 2004;59(3):252-6.
24. Ye XT, Luo YL, Xia SC, Sun QF, Ding JG, Zhou Y, et al. Clinical efficacy of lopinavir/ritonavir in the treatment of Coronavirus disease 2019. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2020;24(6):3390-6.
25. WHO. DRAFT landscape of COVID-19 candidate vaccines – 13 March 2020. World Health Organization - Geneva; 2020 March 13, 2020.
26. Lee J. These 21 companies are working on coronavirus treatments or vaccines — here’s where things stand: marketwatch.com; 2020 [Available from: https://www.marketwatch.com/story/these-nine-companies-are-working-on-coronavirus-treatments-or-vaccines-heres-where-things-stand-2020-03-06.
27. Ralph R, Lew J, Zeng T, Francis M, Xue B, Roux M, et al. 2019-nCoV (Wuhan virus), a novel Coronavirus: human-to-human transmission, travel-related cases, and vaccine readiness. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2020;14(1):3-17.
28. Prompetchara E, Ketloy C, Palaga T. Immune responses in COVID-19 and potential vaccines: Lessons learned from SARS and MERS epidemic. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 2020;38(1):1-9.
29. CDC. Vaccine Testing and the Approval Process: Center for Disease Control and Prevention; 2014 [Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/basics/test-approve.html#devtest.
30. Organization WH. Principles and considerations for adding a vaccine to a national immunization programme: from decision to implementation and monitoring. 2014.
31. Jiang S. Don’t rush to deploy COVID-19 vaccines and drugs without sufficient safety guarantees: Nature; 2020 [Available from: https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-00751-9.
32. Keller MA, Stiehm ER. Passive immunity in prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2000;13(4):602-14.
33. Marano G, Vaglio S, Pupella S, Facco G, Catalano L, Liumbruno GM, et al. Convalescent plasma: new evidence for an old therapeutic tool? Blood Transfus. 2016;14(2):152-7.
34. Roback JD, Guarner J. Convalescent Plasma to Treat COVID-19: Possibilities and Challenges. JAMA. 2020.
35. Tanne JH. Covid-19: FDA approves use of convalescent plasma to treat critically ill patients. Bmj. 2020;368:m1256.
36. Shen C, Wang Z, Zhao F, Yang Y, Li J, Yuan J, et al. Treatment of 5 Critically Ill Patients With COVID-19 With Convalescent Plasma. Jama. 2020.
37. Knight W. Researchers Will Deploy AI to Better Understand Coronavirus 2020 [Available from: https://www.wired.com/story/researchers-deploy-ai-better-understand-coronavirus/.
38. Council J. Hospitals Tap AI to Help Manage Coronavirus Outbreak 2020 [Available from: https://www.wsj.com/articles/hospitals-tap-ai-to-help-manage-coronavirus-outbreak-11584696601.
39. Li L, Qin L, Xu Z, Yin Y, Wang X, Kong B, et al. Artificial Intelligence Distinguishes COVID-19 from Community Acquired Pneumonia on Chest CT. Radiology.0(0):200905.
40. Zhang J, Shuai L, Yu H, Wang Z, Qiu M, Lu L, et al. Acute stress, behavioural symptoms and mood states among school-age children with attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder during the COVID-19 outbreak. Asian J Psychiatr. 2020;51:102077.
41. Radu S. How AI Tracks the Coronavirus Spread 2020 [Available from: https://www.usnews.com/news/best-countries/articles/2020-03-11/how-scientists-are-using-artificial-intelligence-to-track-the-coronavirus.