The role of diet in the prevention and treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

The role of diet in the prevention and treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

Authors

  • Rosa Reddavide National Institute of Gastroenterology “S. De Bellis” Research Hospital, Castellana Grotte, Italy
  • Ornella Rotolo National Institute of Gastroenterology “S. De Bellis” Research Hospital, Castellana Grotte, Italy
  • Maria Gabriella Caruso National Institute of Gastroenterology “S. De Bellis” Research Hospital, Castellana Grotte, Italy
  • Elisa Stasi National Institute of Gastroenterology “S. De Bellis” Research Hospital, Castellana Grotte, Italy
  • Maria Notarnicola National Institute of Gastroenterology “S. De Bellis” Research Hospital, Castellana Grotte, Italy
  • Chiara Miraglia Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, Parma, Italy
  • Antonio Nouvenne Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, Parma, Italy
  • Tiziana Meschi Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, Parma, Italy
  • Gian Luigi de' Angelis Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, Parma, Italy
  • Francesco Di Mario Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, Parma, Italy
  • Gioacchino Leandro National Institute of Gastroenterology “S. De Bellis” Research Hospital, Castellana Grotte, Italy

Keywords:

mediterranean diet, IBD, Crohn Disease, ulcerative colitis, inflammation, nutrition, gut inflammation, micronutrients

Abstract

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) – Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) – are chronic conditions characterised by relapsing inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. They represent an increasing public health concern and an aetiological enigma due to unknown causal factors. The current knowledge on the pathogenesis of IBD is that genetically susceptible individuals develop intolerance to a dysregulated gut microflora (dysbiosis) and chronic inflammation develops as a result of environmental triggers. Among the environmental factors associated with IBD, diet plays an important role in modulating the gut microbiome, and, consequently, it could have a therapeutic impact on the disease course. An overabundance of calories and some macronutrients typical of the Western dietetic pattern increase gut inflammation, whereas several micronutrients characteristic of the Mediterranean Diet have the potential to modulate gut inflammation, according to recent evidence. Immunonutrition has emerged as a new concept putting forward the role of vitamins such as vitamins A, C, E, and D, folic acid, beta carotene and trace elements such as zinc, selenium, manganese and iron. However, when assessed in clinical trials, specific micronutrients showed a limited benefit. Further research is required to evaluate the role of individual food compounds and complex nutritional interventions with the potential to decrease inflammation as a means of prevention and management of IBD. The current dietary recommendations for disease prevention and management are scarce and non evidence-based. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the complex interaction between diet, microbiome and immune-modulation in IBD, with particular focus to the role of the Mediterranean Diet as a tool for prevention and treatment of the disease.

Published

17-12-2018

How to Cite

1.
Reddavide R, Rotolo O, Caruso MG, Stasi E, Notarnicola M, Miraglia C, et al. The role of diet in the prevention and treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. Acta Biomed [Internet]. 2018 Dec. 17 [cited 2024 Jul. 24];89(9-S):60-75. Available from: https://www.mattioli1885journals.com/index.php/actabiomedica/article/view/7952