Assessing the effect of walnut (juglans regia) and olive (olea europaea) oil against the bacterial strains found in Gut Microbiome

Main Article Content

Hena Zahid
Mohsin Shahab
Shafiq ur Rahman
Zafar Iqbal
Ayaz Ali Khan
Tariq Aziz
Waqar Ali
Ghazala Yasmin Zamani
Saeed Ahmad
Muhammad Shahzad
Metab Alharbi
Abdulrahman Alshammari

Keywords

Antimicrobial activity; walnut oil; olive oil; bacteria; zone of inhibition

Abstract

The problem of drug-resistance developed by bacteria against antibiotics turned the attention of researchers to find out and develop such products which haven’t such issues. For this purpose, this study was carried out by using walnut and olive oil against several gram negative and gram-positive bacteria. Different concentrations of oils were employed using disc diffusion method. They exhibited better antibacterial properties. All the tested bacteria, viz. Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella typhimurium, and Shigella sonnei were considered susceptible to certain concentrations of both walnut and olive oil. High bacterial activity (18.9±0.7 mm) of walnut oil was observed against Salmonella typhi, 17±1.2 mm against Proteus vulgaris, 16.90±1.5 mm against Citrobacter freundii, 15±0.8 mm against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 14±1.3 mm against Klebsiella pneumoniae, while average activity was 13±1.2 mm against Salmonella typhimurium, 12.90±1.5 mm against Enterobacter aerogenes, 12±1.5 mm against Escherichia coli and 12±1.00 mm against Shigella sonnei.  Similarly, olive oil had its maximum antibacterial activity 26±1.5 mm, 23.1±1.00 mm, 19±1.5 mm, 19±1.5 mm, 19±0.8 mm, 18±1.1 mm, 18±1.5 mm, 15±1.00 mm, 15±0.7 mm, 14±1.1 mm against Enterobacter aerogenes, Salmonella typhi, Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively, whereas, optimum activity of olive oil was recorded against Salmonella typhimurium (13.15±1.0 mm). These findings showed that walnut and olive oils have a substantial effect on bacteria and can be used as effective antibacterial agents in the development of medicines.

Abstract 378 | PDF Downloads 345

References

1. Shreiner, A.B., J.Y. Kao, and V.B. Young, The gut microbiome in health and in disease. Curr. Opin. Gastroenterol, 2015. 31(1): p. 69.
2. Arpaia, N., Campbell, C., Fan, X., Dikiy, S., van der Veeken, J., deRoos, P., Liu, H., Cross, JR., Pfeffer, K., Coffer, PJ., Rudensky, AY. Metabolites produced by commensal bacteria promote peripheral regulatory T-cell generation. Nature. 2013 19, 504 (7480), 451-5.
3. Gomez de Agüero M, Ganal-Vonarburg SC, Fuhrer T, Rupp S, Uchimura Y, Li H, Steinert A, Heikenwalder M, Hapfelmeier S, Sauer U, McCoy KD, Macpherson AJ. The maternal microbiota drives early postnatal innate immune development. Science. 2016 18;351(6279):1296-302.
4. Constante, M., Fragoso, G., Lupien-Meilleur J, Calvé, A., Santos, MM. Iron Supplements Modulate Colon Microbiota Composition and Potentiate the Protective Effects of Probiotics in Dextran Sodium Sulfate-induced Colitis. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2017, 23(5):753-766.
5. Ajaiyeoba, E. and D. Fadare, Antimicrobial potential of extracts and fractions of the African walnut–Tetracarpidium conophorum. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 2006. 5 (22).
6. Hatami, S., A.M. Sani, and M. Yavarmanesh, Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of organic extra virgin olive oil from Iran. Nutrition & Food Science, 2016.
7. Singh, R., Medicinal plants: A review. J. Plant Sci, 2015, 3(1) 50-55.
8. Thirumurugan, K., M. Shihabudeen, and P. Hansi, Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of selected Indian folk medicinal plants. Steroids, 2010. 1 (7), 430-34.
9. Salimi M, Majd A, Sepahdar Z, Azadmanesh K, Irian S, Ardestaniyan MH, Hedayati MH, Rastkari N. Cytotoxicity effects of various Juglans regia (walnut) leaf extracts in human cancer cell lines. Pharm Biol. 2012, 50 (11), 1416-22.
10. McGranahan, G. and C. Leslie, Walnuts (Juglans). Genetic Resources of Temperate Fruit and Nut Crops 290, 1991: p. 907-974.
11. Covas, M.-I., Olive oil and the cardiovascular system. Pharmacological Research, 2007, 55(3), 175-186.
12. Antonella Saija, Domenico Trombetta, Antonio Tomaino, Rossella Lo Cascio, Pietro Princi, Nicola Uccella, Francesco Bonina, Francesco Castelli. In vitro' evaluation of the antioxidant activity and bio membrane interaction of the plant phenols oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol. Int. J. Pharm., 1998, 166 (2), 123-133.
13. Jahanban-Esfahlan A, Ostadrahimi A, Tabibiazar M, Amarowicz R. A Comprehensive Review on the Chemical Constituents and Functional Uses of Walnut (Juglans spp.) Husk. Int J Mol Sci. 2019, 12, 20 (16):3920.
14. Zakavi F, Golpasand Hagh L, Daraeighadikolaei A, Farajzadeh Sheikh A, Daraeighadikolaei A, Leilavi Shooshtari Z. Antibacterial Effect of Juglans Regia Bark against Oral Pathologic Bacteria. Int J Dent. 2013; 854765.
15. Paudel, S., T. Magrati, and J.R. Lamichhane, Antimicrobial activity of wild olive crude extracts in vitro. Int. J. Pharm. Sci., 2011. 2 (3), 110-113.
16. Tuck, K.L. and P.J. Hayball. Major phenolic compounds in olive oil: metabolism and health effects. J. Nutr. Biochem, 2002. 13(11), 636-644.
17. Dağdelen, A., Identifying antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the phenolic extracts and mineral contents of virgin olive oils (Olea europaea L. cv. Edincik Su) from different regions in Turkey. J. Chem. 2016.
18. Taha, N.A. and M.A. Al-wadaan, Utility and importance of walnut, Juglans regia Linn: A review. Afr. J. Microbiol. Res. 2011, 5 (32): 5796-5805.
19. Muhammad Altaf Hussaina , Muhammad Qayyum Khana , Nazar Hussaina , Tariq Habiba and Muhammad Ejaz Ul Islam Dar Antibacterial activity of stem and root bark of wild olive (Olea cuspidata wall.) of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Wulfenia, 2014, 21 (7), 77-95.
20. ORHAN, İ.E., B. ÖZÇELİK, and B. ŞENER, Evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antioxidant potentials of some edible oils and their fatty acid profiles. Turk. J. Biol., 2011. 35 (2): 251-258.
21. Rathi, P., M. Ahmad, and A. Tomar, Study on antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of walnut (Juglans nigra) oil. Int J Curr Res Chem Pharm Sci, 2014. 1 (7): p. 51-55.
22. Joseph Francis, P., A.K. Mullaicharam, and M. Ramesan, Research and Reviews: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences.
23. Saxenaa, R., D. Joshib, and R. Singhc, Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of walnut oil. Int. J. Ess Oil Therp, 2009, 3 (2), 115-118
24. Cicerale, S., L. Lucas, and R. Keast, Antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory phenolic activities in extra virgin olive oil. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol, 2012. 23(2), 129-135.
25. Ali M. Ahmed, Nancy S. Rabii, Aboubaker M. Garbaj, Said K. Abolghait. Antibacterial effect of olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves extracts in raw peeled undeveined shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus), Int. J. Vet. Sci, 2014, 2 (1), 53-56
26. Pereira AP, Ferreira IC, Marcelino F, Valentão P, Andrade PB, Seabra R, Estevinho L, Bento A, Pereira JA. Phenolic compounds and antimicrobial activity of olive (Olea europaea L. Cv. Cobrançosa) leaves. Molecules. 2007;12(5):1153-62.
27. Eduardo Medina, Antonio de Castro, Concepción Romero, Eva Ramírez and Manuel Brenes. Effect of antimicrobial compounds from olive products on microorganisms related to health, food and agriculture. Microbial pathogens and strategies for combating them: science, technology and education. Formatex Research Center Publishing, Badajoz, Spain, 2013: p. 1087-94.
28. Bisignano, G., Tomaino, A., Lo, Cascio, R., Crisafi, G., Uccella, N., Saija, A. On the in-vitro antimicrobial activity of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1999, 51(8):971-4.
29. Pereira JA, Oliveira I, Sousa A, Ferreira IC, Bento A, Estevinho L. Bioactive properties and chemical composition of six walnut (Juglans regia L.) cultivars. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008, 46 (6):2103-11.