Effects of soybean residue addition on yogurt quality: physicochemical, functional, and sensory properties Enhancing Yogurt Quality with the Addition of Soy Residue

Main Article Content

Ying Zhang
Jisuk Kim
Ka-Young Song https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4523-5730
Yookyung Kim


okara, fermentation, antioxidant capacity, whey separation


Okara contained bioactive substances, including isoflavones and other natural polyphenols with strong antioxidant activity. We intended to produce better quality yogurt by adding okara; thus, our types of yogurt were prepared: yogurt without additives (control; C), with soy powder (SY), with okara (OY), and with roasted okara (ROY). The yogurt was analyzed for physicochemical (total Lactobacillus, titratable acidity, whey separation, and viscosity), functional (isoflavone, total phenols, and antioxidant capacity), and sensory properties. The addition of okara increased the total Lactobacillus count. The OY sample (35.80 × 1012 CFU/g) had a total Lactobacillus count that was 18 times higher than that of C (2.80 × 1012 CFU/g). Furthermore, the isoflavone content was the highest in OY at 18.15 mg/kg. The total phenol content and DPPH radical-scavenging capacity were as follows in the order of highest to lowest: SY, ROY, OY, and C. The changes in viscosity during fermentation showed the fastest rate in OY, which seemed to shorten the fermentation time from 8 h to 6 h. No significant difference in the whey separation rate was observed in OY (20.0–20.1%) over 15 days of storage. Additionally, the OY (4.16) and ROY (4.34) samples had better overall acceptability scores than SY (1.78). Okara is an effective additive that can be used to improve the total Lactobacillus count and antioxidant capacity of yogurt, and extend its shelf life.

Abstract 152 | PDF Downloads 126


1. Fazilah NF, Ariff AB, Khayat ME, Rios-Solis L, Halim M. Influence of probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics and bioactive phytochemicals on the formulation of functional yoğurt. J Funct Foods 2018; 48: 387–399.
2. Ahmad I, Hao Ma, Li Y, Zhang J, Ding Y, Lyu F. Fortification of yogurt with bioactive functional foods and ingredients and associated challenges-A review. 2022; 129: 558-580.
3. Ortolan F, Paiva Corrêa G, Lopes da Cunha R, Joy Steel C. Rheological properties of vital wheat glutens with water or sodium chloride. LWT– Food Sci Technol 2017; 79:647–654.
4. Korus J, Witczak M, Ziobro R, Juszczak L. Hemp (Cannabis sativa subsp. sativa) flour and protein preparation as natural nutrients and structure forming agents in starch based gluten free bread. LWT– Food Sci Technol 2017; 84: 143–150.
5. Kok CR, Hutkins R. Yogurt and other fermented foods as sources of health-promoting bacteria. Nutr Rev 2018; 76: 4–15.
6. Dabija A, Codină GG, Ropciuc S, Stroe SG. Studies regarding the production of a novel yogurt using some local plant raw materials. J Food Process Preserv 2018; 43: 1–9.
7. Fan X, Shi Z, Xu J, et al. Characterization of the effects of binary probiotics and wolfberry dietary fiber on the quality of yogurt. Food Chem 2023; 406: 135020.
8. Dong R, Liao W, Xie J, et al. Enrichment of yogurt with carrot soluble dietary fiber prepared by three physical modified treatments: microstructure, rheology and storage stability. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 2022; 75: 102901.
9. Qin X, Yang C, Si J, et al. Fortified yogurt with high-quality dietary fiber prepared from the by-products of grapefruit by superfine grinding combined with fermentation treatment. LWT Food Sci Technol 2023; 188: 115396.
10. Carlson JL, Erickson JM, Lloyd BB, Slavin JL. Health effects and sources of prebiotic dietary fiber. Curr Dev Nutr 2018; 2: 1–8.
11. Zuo X, Zhao R, Wu M, Wan Q, Li T. Soy Consumption and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrient 2023; 15: 1358.
12. Akalin AS, Unal G, Dinkci N, Hayaloglu AA. Microstructural, textural, and sensory characteristics of probiotic yogurts fortified with sodium calcium caseinate or whey protein concentrate. J Dairy Sci 2012; 95: 3617–3628.
13. Fan X, Li X, Du L, et al. The effect of natural plant-based homogenates as additives on the quality of yogurt: A review. 2022; 49: 101953.
14. Zahari L, Ostbring K, Purhagen JK, Rayner M. Plant-based meat analogues from alternative protein: A systematic literature review. Foods 2023; 11: 2870.
15. Privatti RT, Rodriques CEDC. An overview of the composition, applications, and recovery techniques of the components of okara aimed at the biovalorization of this soybean processing residue. Food Rev Int 2023; 39: 726-749.
16. Xie L, Zhou W, Zhao L, et al. Impact of okara on quality and in vitro starch digestibility of noodles: The view based on physicochemical and structural properties. Int J Biol Macromol 2023; 237: 124105.
17. Park J, Choi I, Kim Y. Cookies formulated from fresh okara using starch, soy flour and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose have high quality and nutritional value. LWT– Food Sci Technol 2015;63: 660–666.
18. Jang S, Shin WK, Kim Y. Texture of steamed rice cake prepared via soy residue and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose supplementation. Cereal Chem 2019; 96: 57–65.
19. Park K, Kim Y. Enhanced antioxidant capacity of brown rice vinegar supplemented with soy residue. Cereal Chem 2023; 100: 1314-1325.
20. Simamora A, Santoso AW, Marvianta YBA, Purba FR, Timotius KH. Okara probiotic drink as an innovative product from tofu by product: community counselling for young tofu craftsmen. J Pengabdi Kpd Masy 2022; 5: 202-209.
21. Vieira ADS, Bedani R, Albuquerque M, Biscola V, Saad SMI. The impact of fruit and soybean by-products and amaranth on the growth of probiotic and starter microorganisms. Food Res Int 2017;97: 356–363.
22. Bedani R, Rossi EA, Cavallini DCU, et al. Influence of daily consumption of synbiotic soy-based product supplemented with okara soybean by-product on risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Food Res Int 2015; 73: 142–148.
23. Shin WK, Yokoyama WH, Kim W, Wicker L, Kim Y. Change in texture improvement of low‐fat tofu by means of low‐fat soymilk protein denaturation. J Sci Food Agri 2015; 95: 1000–1007.
24. Wang Y, Song KY, Kim Y. Effects of thermally treated mulberry leaves on the quality, properties, and antioxidant activities of yogurt. J Food Process Preserv 2022; 46: e16139.
25. AOAC. 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. Vol. I. 15th ed. AOAC International, Washington, D. C., USA.
26. Fernandez-Garcia E, McGregor J. Fortification of sweetened plain yogurt with insoluble dietary fiber. Z Lebensm und-Forsch 1997;204: 433–437.
27. Yu M, Ma J, Wang X, et al. Peanut sprout yogurt: Increased antioxidant activity and nutritional content and sensory evaluation by fuzzy mathematic. J Food Process Preserv 2022;e16663.
28. Kailasapathy K, Rybka S. L. acidophilus and bifidobacterium spp.—Their therapeutic potential and survival in yogurt. Aust J Dairy Technol 1997; 52: 28–35.
29. Farnworth ER, Mainville I, Desjardins MP, Gardner N, Fliss I, Champagne C. Growth of probiotic bacteria and bifidobacteria in a soy yogurt formulation. Int J Food Microbiol 2007; 116: 174–181.
30. Mishra S, Mishra HN. Effect of synbiotic interaction of fructooligosaccharide and probiotics on the acidification profile, textural and rheological characteristics of fermented soy milk. Food Bioprocess Technol 2013;6: 3166–3176.
31. Jia S, Zhao H, Tao H, Yu B, Liu P, Cui B. Influence of corn resistant starches type III on the rheology, structure, and viable counts of set yogurt. Int J Biol Macromol 2022; 203: 10–18.
32. Seo MH, Lee SY, Chang YH, Kwak HS. Physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties of yogurt supplemented with nanopowdered chitosan during storage. J Dairy Sci 2009; 92: 5907–5916.
33. Sahan N, Yasar K, Hayaloglu AA. Physical, chemical and flavor quality of non-fat yogurt as affected by a β-glucan hydrocolloidal composite during storage. Food Hydrocoll 2008; 22: 1291–1297.
34. Sert D, Mercan E, Dert E. Characterization of lactic acid bacteria from yogurt-like product fermented with pine cone and determination of their role on physicochemical, textural and microbiological properties of product. LWT– Food Sci Technol 2017;78: 70–76.
35. Sung JM, Kim YB, Kum JS, Choi YS, Park JD. Effects of freeze-dried mulberry on antioxidant activities and fermented characteristics of yogurt during refrigerated storage. Korean J Food Sci Anim Resour 2015; 35: 807–814.
36. Slavin M, Cheng Z, Luther M, Kenworthy W, Yu L. Antioxidant properties and phenolic, isoflavone, tocopherol and carotenoid composition of Maryland-grown soybean lines with altered fatty acid profiles. Food Chem 2009; 114: 20–27.
37. Xu B, Chang SK. Total phenolics, phenolic acids, isoflavones, and anthocyanins and antioxidant properties of yellow and black soybeans as affected by thermal processing. J Agric Food Chem 2008;56: 7165–7175.
38. Shin DJ, Kim W, Kim Y. Physicochemical and sensory properties of soy bread made with germinated, steamed, and roasted soy flour. Food Chem 2016; 141: 517–523.
39. Shori AB. Antioxidant activity and viability of lactic acid bacteria in soybean-yogurt made from cow and camel milk. J Taibah Uni Sci 2013; 7: 202–208.
40. Kashaninejad M, Razavi SM. The effects of different gums and their interactions on the rheological properties of instant camel yogurt: a mixture design approach. J Food Meas Charact 2019;13: 1299–1309.
41. Yoshida BY, Prudencio SH. Physical, chemical, and technofunctional properties of okara modified by a carbohydrase mixture. LWT– Food Sci Technol 2020;134: 110141.
42. Nguyen PT, Kravchuk O, Bhandari B, Prakash S. Effect of different hydrocolloids on texture, rheology, tribology and sensory perception of texture and mouthfeel of low‐fat pot‐set yoghurt. Food Hydrocoll 2017; 72: 90–104.
43. El-Bouchikhi S, Page`s P, El-Alaoui Y, Ibrahimi A, Bensouda Y. Syneresis investigations of lacto-fermented sodium caseinate in a mixed model system. BMC Biotechnol 2019;19: 57.
44. Arab M, Yousefi M, Khanniri E, Azari M, Ghasemzadeh-Mohammadi V, Mollakhalili-Meybodi N. A comprehensive review on yogurt syneresis: effect of processing conditions and added additives. J Food Sci Technol 2022; 12: 1–10.