Main Article Content
History of medicine, Spanish flu, Influenza, Iran, British, Shiraz
The Spanish flu outbreak is one of the historical catastrophes in Fars province, especially Shiraz, southern Iran that infected almost the entire population. The epidemic began on 29 October 1918 and continued until 1920 in several waves. Within three years, the population of Shiraz decreased from 50,000 to around 20,000-25,000. The disease killed half of the city population and caused severe damages to its demographic context and economic development. A rather unpleasant remnant of the epidemic is Javan Abad Cemetery in Shiraz. This study aimed to explore the importance of local medical history in Shiraz, the effect of the flu outbreak, World War I, and presence of the British that led to a human-made famine and malnutrition, and the role played by this colonial government in amplifying the Flu outbreak and city decimation. The study also aimed to discuss the type of the disease and treatment used by the British forces.
2. Forbes-Leith FAC. Checkmate: fightcing Tradition in central Persia. Translated by Abotrabian H. Tehran: Etelaat; 1987. p. 84. [Persian]
3. "Providence: Economy." Cities of the United States. Encyclopedia.com. (July 2, 2023). https://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/providence-economy.
4. Golshani SA, Zohalinezhad ME, Amoozegar F, Farjam M. Spanish flu in Tehran from 1918 to 1920. Arch Iran Med 2022; 25(1):71–5.
5. Floor WM. Studies in the History of Medicine in Iran. Translated by: Nabipour IS, Vahdat K, Nabipour IR. Bushehr: Bushehr University of Medical Sciences; 2018. p. 213–32. [Persian].
6. Golshani S A, Azari Khakestar G. Spanish Influenza in Mashhad from 1918 to 1920. IJMEHM 2021; 14 (1): 363–72.
7. Chick H. Master Chick's reports of events in Fars and Bushehr in World War I. Translated by: Parto A. Tehran: Hamsoo; 2013. p. 192–268. [Persian].
8. Golshani SA, Zohalinezhad ME, Taghrir MH, Ghasempoor S, Salehi A. Spanish Flu and the end of World War I in Southern Iran from 1917–1920. Arch Iran Med 2021; 24(1):78–83.
9. Afkhami A. Compromised constitutions: the Iranian experience with the 1918 influenza pandemic. Bulletin of the History of medicine 2003; 77(2): 367–92.
10. Abrahamian E. A history of modern Iran. Translated by: Mohammad Ibrahim Fatahi. Tehran: Nei Press; 2009. p. 17
11. Skrine SCP. World war in Iran. Translated by: Najaf-Abadi Farahani H. Tehran: Nowen; 1984. p. 123–4. [Persian].
12. Tadayon P. Provincial governors and governors of the Persian (been two towers Persian Constitutional Revolution and Islamic Revolution). Vol 1. Shiraz: Bonyad Farsshenasi; 2005. p. 376–81. [Persian].
13. Atabaki T. Persia/Iran. 1914-1918-online. International Encyclopedia of the First World War. https://encyclopedia.1914-1918-online.net/article/persiairan
14. Majd MG. The Great Famine and Genocide in Persia 1917-1919. Translated by: Mohammad Karimi. Tehran: Political Studies and Research Institute; 2007. p. 73–9, p. 200–1. [Persian]
15. Edalati Z, Majid I. Imperial wars and the violence of hunger: remembering and forgetting the Great Persian Famine 1917–1919. Third World Quarterly 2023;1–17.
16. Simonow J. Famine relief in colonial South Asia, 1858–1947: Regional and global perspectives. In: Fischer-Tiné H, Framke M (eds.). Routledge Handbook of the History of Colonialism in South Asia. London and New York: Routledge; 2022. p. 497–509.
17. Pordeli MR, Abavysany M, Mollashahi M, Sanchooli DA. A Study of the Causes of Famine in Iran during World War I. Review of European Studies 2017; 9(2): 296–300.
18. Kazemi Z. The Causes and Factors of the Fars Famine Between 1945 and 1914. Research Journal of Iran Local Histories 2013; 1(2): 147–58.
19. Nadim M. Acquiring Influenza in Shiraz in 1918 AD. Research on History of Medicine 2013; 2(3): 95–102.
20. Nayer Shirazi SA. Nayer gift. Correction and clarification by Nayeri MY. Shiraz: Foundation for Fars Studies; 2004. p. 254. [Persian]
21. Motahhari ES. Tombs of North Shiraz. Supervisor: Mostafa Nadim. Faculty of Literature and Humanities. Shiraz University. Master Thesis; 2012. p. 13, 33, 65, 209. [Persian]
22. Emdad H. Fars in the Qajar era. Shiraz: Navid Shiraz; 2008. p. 662. [Persian]
23. Azizi MH, Raees Jalali GA, Azizi F. A history of the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic and its impact on Iran. Arch Iran Med 2010; 13(3): 262–5.
24. Sykes SP. A History of Persia. Vol 2. Translated by: Seyyed Mohammad Taghi Fakhr Da'i Gilani. Tehran: Afsoon; 2001. p. 716–7. [Persian]
25. Farman Farmaian M. Under the Supervision of the Father (Ms. Mehrmah Farman Farmaian's memories from inside the house). Tehran: Kavir; 2004. p. 28. [Persian].
26. Ettehadieh M, Saadvandiyan S. Letters and documents of Abdol -Hosein Mirza Farman-Farma. Vol 2. Tehran: Nashr Tarikh Iran; 1988. p. 582. [Persian]
27. Nylstroom G. World War I and Fars. Translated by: Afshin Partoo. Tehran: Abad-Boum; 2009. p. 93. [Persian]
28. Emdad H. Fars in the Qajar era. Shiraz: Navid Shiraz; 2008. p. 662. [Persian]
29. Roomi S. Press History in Fars Province: Qajar. Shiraz: Bonyad Farsshenasi; 2004. p. 14–57. [Persian]
30. Britannica, T. Editors of Encyclopaedia (2020, January 9). Ḥāfeẓ. Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Hafez
31. Golshani SA. Golshan-e-Shiraz (A look at the History of Shiraz's political, social, scientific, and cultural developments from the beginning to the Constitutional Revolution). Shiraz: Farahang-Pars; 2010. p. 390. [Persian]
32. Ruknzadeh-Adamiyat MH. Fars and Jeng Beenmull. Tehran: Iqbal; 2004. p. 457–8. [Persian]
33. Link to Shahid Dastgheib Hospital of Shiraz; https://dastgheib.sums.ac.ir/page-dastgheibhp/fa/35/form/pId1479.
34. Arfa H. Reza Shah Pahlavi. Encyclopedia Britannica, 22 Jul. 2023, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Reza-Shah-Pahlavi.
35. Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. Sayyid Zia od-Din Tabatabaʾi. Encyclopedia Britannica, 25 Aug. 2023, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Sayyid-Zia-od-Din-Tabatabai.