Main Article Content
healthcare-associated infections; sanitation; sanitization; theory of planned behavior; attitudes; perceived behavioral control; infectious risk; hospital setting.
Background and aim of the work. Worrying data indicate the urgency of strongly limiting Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI). Therefore, according to the Theory of Planned Behavior, the psychosocial precursors of correct sanitation and sanitization were assessed.
Methods. An Italian sample of hospital health workers (nurses, healthcare assistants, cleaners; N=250), replied to a validated questionnaire measuring: a) knowledge of HAI; b) favorable attitude towards the correct sanitation and sanitization procedure; c) perception that the management and colleagues give importance to the government of infectious risk; d) perception of being able to implement risk management behaviors; e) perception of having received proper training for the prevention of HAI.
Results. The results show many mistakes about knowledge, the perception of insufficient specific training, and not always favorable attitude towards sanitation and sanitization practices. Workers also perceive that they can act the required behaviors and that the management of infectious risk represents a value in the group they belong to, but they believe that the management does not offer sufficient support.
Conclusions. The improvement of the factors considered (knowledge, personal attitudes, actions of management and colleagues, perception of being able to implement the required behaviors) is affected by proper training. This is one of the aspects on which management should invest more.
2. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). ECDC surveillance data: Healthcare-associated infections in intensive care units - Annual Epidemiological Report for 2017. Stockholm: ECDC; 2019. Available at: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/healthcare-associated-infections-intensive-care-units-annual-epidemiological-1. Accessed on September 18, 2020.
3. Ministero della Salute. Manuale di formazione per il governo clinico: la sicurezza dei pazienti e degli operatori [Ministry of Health. Training manual for clinical governance: patient and operator safety]. Roma: Ministero della Salute; 2012. Available at: http://www.salute.gov.it/portale/documentazione/p6_2_2_1.jsp?lingua=italiano&id=1688. Accessed on September 18, 2020.
4. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). ECDC Rapid risk assessment: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Stockholm: ECDC; 2016. Available at: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/rapid-risk-assessment-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-14-april-2016. Accessed on September 18, 2020.
5. Dancer SJ. The role of environmental cleaning in the control of hospital-acquired infection. J Hosp Infect 2009, 73(4):378-385.
6. Rutala WA, Weber DJ. Surface disinfection: should we do it?. J Hosp Infect 2001, 48:S64-S68.
7. Christensen TE, Jørgensen JS, Kolmos HJ. The importance of hygiene for hospital infections. Ugeskrift Laeger 2007, 169(49):4249-4251.
8. Weber DJ, Anderson D, Rutala WA. The role of the surface environment in healthcare-associated infections. Curr opin infect dis 2013, 26(4):338-344.
9. Randle J, Arthur A, Vaughan N. Twenty-four-hour observational study of hospital hand hygiene compliance. J Hosp Infect 2010, 76(3):252-255.
10. Fishbein M, Ajzen I. Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1977.
11. Ajzen I. The theory of planned behavior. Organ Behav Hum Dec. 1991, 50:179-211.
12. Ajzen I. Constructing a TpB Questionnaire: Conceptual and Methodological Considerations. Amherst: University of Massachusetts; 2002, revised 2006. Available at: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/0574/b20bd58130dd5a961f1a2db10fd1fcbae95d.pdf. Accessed on September 18, 2020.
13. Rosenberg MJ, Hovland, CI. Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Components of Attitudes. In M. J. Rosenberg, C. I. Hovland (Eds.), Attitude Organization and Change: An Analysis of Consistency among Attitude Components. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1960.
14. Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Ospedali Riuniti di Ancona. Linee di indirizzo per la pulizia e la sanitizzazione ambientale in ospedale, REV. 00 [University Hospital of the Ospedali Riuniti of Ancona. Guidelines for cleaning and environmental sanitization in the hospital, Revision 00]. Ancona: AOU Ospedali Riuniti di Ancona, December 19, 2011.
15. AUSL Romagna. Pulizia e disinfezione nelle sale operatorie, REV. 03 [AUSL Romagna. Cleaning and disinfection in operating rooms, Revision 03]. Cesena: AUSL Romagna, September 24, 2015.
16. Ente Ospedaliero Ospedali Galliera. Prontuario antisettici e disinfettanti, REV. 03 [Galliera Hospital. Handbook of antiseptics and disinfectants, Revision 03]. Genova: E.O. Ospedali Galliera, August, 2006.
17. AUSL Cesena. Pulizia e disinfezione nella stanza/unità paziente colonizzato/infetto da microrganismo sentinella, REV. 01 [AUSL Cesena. Cleaning and disinfection in the colonized/infected patient room/unit with sentinel microorganism, Revision 01]. Cesena: AUSL Cesena, December 11, 2009.
18. Agenzia Sanitaria e Sociale Regionale – Dossier 189. Cure pulite sono cure più sicure – Rapporto finale della campagna nazionale OMS [Regional Health and Social Agency – Dossier 189. Clean care is safer care - Final report of the WHO national campaign]. Bologna: Regione Emilia-Romagna, 2010.
19. Ricci F, Pelosi A, Panari C, Chiesi A. Safety Training 4.0: Active, Collaborative, Human-Focused Practices, to Improve Health at Work. In M. Peruzzini, M. Pellicciari, C. Bil, J. Stjepandic & N. Wognum (Eds.), Transdisciplinary Engineering Methods for Social Innovation of Industry 4.0. (Vol. 7, pp. 310–319). Amsterdam, NL: IOS Press, 2018.
20. Ricci F, Pelosi A, Panari C, Chiesi A, Safety Value in Practice for an Effective Occupational Health and Safety Training. In I. Baumane-Vītoliņa (Ed.), Organization 4.1: The role of values in the organizations of the 21st century. ISSWOV, 2018. Available at: https://universityts.wixsite.com/isswov2018/conference-proceedings. Accessed on September 18, 2020.
21. The Nordic Council of Ministers. NOSACQ 50item, Italian version. København: NRCWE; 2013. Available from: https://nfa.dk/da/Vaerktoejer/Sporgeskemaer/Safety-Climate-Questionnaire-NOSACQ50/NOSACQ50-translations. Accessed on September 18, 2020.
22. Ricci F, Chiesi A, Bisio C, Panari C, Pelosi A. Effectiveness of occupational health and safety training: a systematic review with meta-analysis. J Workplace Learn 2016, 28(6):355-377.
23. Soule BM. Patient safety. In C. Friedman & W. Newsom (Eds.), IFIC basic concepts of infection control (2nd ed., pp. 1–15). Portadown, North Ireland, UK: International Federation of Infection Control, 2011.
24. Senge, PM. The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. New York, NY: Doubleday, 1990.
25. Knowles, MS. Andragogy in Action. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1984.