Longitudinal evaluation of endothelial markers in children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolemia. FMD in paediatric heFH

Main Article Content

Patrizia Bruzzi
Barbara Predieri
Simona Madeo
Francesca Lami
Lorenzo Iughetti

Keywords

Flow mediated dilation; Familial hypercholesterolemia; Children; Endothelial function; Cardiovascular risk; LDL-cholesterol

Abstract

Background and aim: Children with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (heFH) are at risk of premature atherosclerosis. Aims of this study were: (a) to longitudinally evaluate the endothelial dysfunction, estimated through brachial flow mediated dilation (FMD), as first sign of subclinical atherogenesis in a group of children and adolescents affected by heFH in comparison to normo-lipidemic controls, and (b) to identify predictive factors influencing the endothelial function and its development in the same cohort of patients.


Methods: This is a prospective, longitudinal and cross-sectional study. Physical examination, plasma lipid profile and brachial artery FMD were measured at baseline and after follow-up.


Results: At baseline, FMD did not differ between heFH children (n.24, median age 9.71) and controls (n. 24, median age 10.29) (7.67 ± 9.26 vs. 11.18 ± 7.28 %, p 0.09). Nevertheless, during follow-up (median length of lipid-lowering diet 4.52 years), FMD got worse in 54% of heFH subjects and its worsening correlated to the increasing of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r -0.21, p < 0.05). Moreover, being male (β -0.46, p 0.03), undergoing puberty (β -0.61, p 0.03) and increasing of body mass index standard deviation score (β -0.39, p 0.03) were identified as main independent predictor factors of FMD drop.


Conclusions: During the first decades of life, not only hypercholesterolemia, but also clusters of pro-atherogenic conditions and their persistence, could affect the endothelial function and its trend. (www.actabiomedica.it)

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References

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