Intraoperative Neuromonitoring, Nerves at Risk and Staged Thyroidectomy, our Experience on 377 Consecutive Cases Nerves at risk and staged thyroidectomy in 377 cases

Main Article Content

Matteo Rossini
Federico Cozzani
Tommaso Loderer
Elena Bonati
Mario Giuffrida
Paolo Del Rio

Keywords

IONM; intraoperative neuromonitoring; thyroidectomy; staged thyroidectomy; vocal cord palsy; RLN

Abstract

Purpose: The aim of this study was firstly to report the experience of intermittent intraoperative neuromonitoring (I-IONM) and evaluate the impact of loss of signal (LOS) in staged thyroidectomy management.


Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent total thyroidectomy, performed by a single surgeon in two years. All patients have been subjected to I-IONM. In case of intraoperative loss of signal (LOS), planned total thyroidectomy was always aborted. Six-month follow-up was performed. Postoperative dysphonia was evaluated with VHI-10 score in 3 time settings T1, during hospital stay, T2 after 30 days, T3 after 6 months. Dysphonia has been compared to IONM results to evaluate sensitivity and specificity.


Results: 377 patients were included. Incidence of dysphonia was calculated based on the number of nerves at risk (NAR). We evaluated a total of 724 NAR. LOS encountered were 43 cases (5.9% of total NAR), of these 14 were LOS 1 while 29 were LOS 2. 27 patients (3.7% of NAR) presented early post-operative dysphonia with VHI-10 score > 13 (T1), among these 16 had presented LOS at IONM (true positives) while11 had no LOS (false negatives). In T2 and T3 we reported a decrease in true positive cases increasing false positives. Sensitivity at T3 reached 85.7% while specificity and odds ratio were respectively 94.8% and 110.


Conclusions: Given the high sensitivity and specificity, IONM should be considered a useful tool for thyroid surgery and its use should be suggested for patients undergoing planned total thyroidectomy. Its right application may cancel the risk of bilateral paralysis.

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