The impact of Covid-19 in proximal femur fractures. An observational study of the mortality rate

The impact of Covid-19 in proximal femur fractures. An observational study of the mortality rate

Authors

  • Andrea Cosentino Franz Tappeiner Hospital, Department of Orthopedic and Traumathology, via Rossini 5, 39012, Meran (Bz), Italy https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7885-512X
  • Gianni Odorizzi Franz Tappeiner Hospital, Department of Orthopedic and Traumathology, via Rossini 5, 39012, Meran (Bz), Italy https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7386-190X
  • Wilhelm Berger Franz Tappeiner Hospital, Department of Orthopedic and Traumathology, via Rossini 5, 39012, Meran (Bz), Italy

Keywords:

Proximal femur fracture, mortality, Covid-19

Abstract

Background and aim: Fractures of the proximal femur in the elderly are probably the leading cause of death in the orthopedic patients. Furthermore, after the spread of the pandemic, the mortality rate in the elderly has certainly increased. The aim of our study is to evaluate whether the mortality following proximal femur fractures is affected by the concomitant pandemic.

Methods: We admitted to our study patients over 65 years old, who presented to our Emergency Room with a diagnosis of proximal femur fracture in the first quarter of the years 2019, the period before the development of the pandemic, of 2020 during the pandemic and of 2021 with the new wave of Covid-19. 2022 was not taken into consideration because the mortality data are not yet available and to have at least one year follow-up after surgery. All patients were divided by fracture’s type and treatment; the time elapsed from trauma to surgery and from trauma to discharge was also evaluated. For each deceased patient, we considered the time elapsed from the operation to death and whether there was an episode of positivity to Covid-19 following the trauma and after discharge (all patients had a negative swab at the time of admission).

Conclusions: Fractures of the proximal femur in the elderly patient are undoubtedly an important cause leading to the death. The spreading of the Covid-19 pandemic has allowed our department to reduce the gap between trauma and intervention time and from trauma to discharge which is undoubtedly a positive prognostic factor. However, the concurrence of a positivity from the virus does not seem to influence the mortality times following the fracture.

References

Bhandari M, Swiontkowski M. Management of Acute Hip Fracture. N Engl J Med. 2017 Nov 23;377(21):2053-2062. doi: 10.1056/NEJMcp1611090.

Melton LJ 3rd, Gabriel SE, Crowson CS, Tosteson AN, Johnell O, Kanis JA. Cost-equivalence of different osteoporotic fractures. Osteoporos Int. 2003 Jun;14(5):383-8. doi: 10.1007/s00198-003-1385-4.

Brauer CA, Coca-Perraillon M, Cutler DM, Rosen AB. Incidence and mortality of hip fractures in the United States. JAMA. 2009 Oct 14;302(14):1573-9. doi: 10.1001/jama.2009.1462.

Abrahamsen B, van Staa T, Ariely R, Olson M, Cooper C. Excess mortality following hip fracture: a systematic epidemiological review. Osteoporos Int. 2009 Oct;20(10):1633-50. doi: 10.1007/s00198-009-0920-3.

Roberts SE, Goldacre MJ. Time trends and demography of mortality after fractured neck of femur in an English population, 1968-98: database study. BMJ. 2003 Oct 4;327(7418):771-5. doi: 10.1136/bmj.327.7418.771.

Jaglal SB, Weller I, Mamdani M, Hawker G, Kreder H, Jaakkimainen L, Adachi JD. Population trends in BMD testing, treatment, and hip and wrist fracture rates: are the hip fracture projections wrong? J Bone Miner Res. 2005 Jun;20(6):898-905. doi: 10.1359/JBMR.041231.

Kanasi E, Ayilavarapu S, Jones J. The aging population: demographics and the biology of aging. Periodontol 2000. 2016 Oct;72(1):13-8. doi: 10.1111/prd.12126

Burge R, Dawson-Hughes B, Solomon DH, Wong JB, King A, Tosteson A. Incidence and economic burden of osteoporosis-related fractures in the United States, 2005-2025. J Bone Miner Res. 2007 Mar;22(3):465-75. doi: 10.1359/jbmr.061113

Leal J, Gray AM, Prieto-Alhambra D, et al; REFReSH study group. Impact of hip fracture on hospital care costs: a population-based study. Osteoporos Int. 2016 Feb;27(2):549-58. doi: 10.1007/s00198-015-3277-9.

Halim A, Grauer JN. Orthopedics in the Era of COVID-19. Orthopedics. 2020 May 1;43(3):138-139. doi: 10.3928/01477447-20200426-01.

Dong E, Du H, Gardner L. An interactive web-based dashboard to track COVID-19 in real time. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020 May;20(5):533-534. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30120-1. Epub 2020 Feb 19. Erratum in: Lancet Infect Dis. 2020 Sep;20(9):e215.

Moran CG, Wenn RT, Sikand M, Taylor AM. Early mortality after hip fracture: is delay before surgery important? J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2005 Mar;87(3):483-9. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.D.01796.

Dallari D, Zagra L, Cimatti P, et al. Early mortality in hip fracture patients admitted during first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Northern Italy: a multicentre study. J Orthop Traumatol. 2021;22(1):15. doi:10.1186/s10195-021-00577-9

Fusini F, Massè A, Risitano S, et al. Should we operate on all patients with COVID-19 and proximal femoral fractures? An analysis of thirty, sixty, and ninety day mortality rates based on patients' clinical presentation and comorbidity: a multicentric study in Northern Italy. Int Orthop. 2021;45(10):2499-2505. doi:10.1007/s00264-021-05166-3

COVIDSurg Collaborative. Outcomes after perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with proximal femoral fractures: an international cohort study. BMJ Open. 2021;11(11):e050830. Published 2021 Nov 30. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2021-050830

Downloads

Published

14-06-2023

Issue

Section

ORTHOPAEDICS AND SURGERY

How to Cite

1.
Cosentino A, Odorizzi G, Berger W. The impact of Covid-19 in proximal femur fractures. An observational study of the mortality rate. Acta Biomed [Internet]. 2023 Jun. 14 [cited 2024 Jul. 20];94(3):e2023108. Available from: https://www.mattioli1885journals.com/index.php/actabiomedica/article/view/14217