Beneficial role of rosemary extract on oxidative stress-mediated neuronal apoptosis in rotenone-induced attention deficit hyperactivity disease in juvenile rat model

Beneficial role of rosemary extract on oxidative stress-mediated neuronal apoptosis in rotenone-induced attention deficit hyperactivity disease in juvenile rat model


  • Eman Abdelrazik Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.
  • Hend M. Hassan Department of Human Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.
  • Eman Hamza Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt/ Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Horus University, Damietta, Egypt.
  • Farah M. Ezz Elregal Medical Student, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.
  • Marwa H. Elnagdy Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.
  • Eman A. Abdulhai Department of Pediatrics (pediatric neurology), Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.


ADHD, Rotenone, Rosemary, Tyrosine Hydroxylase, Caspase-3


Background and aim: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is heterogeneous neurobehavioral disorders that co-exist with cognitive and learning deficits affecting 3-7% of children. We study the role of rosemary in the protection of the prefrontal cortical neurons against rotenone-induced ADHD in juvenile rats. Methods: Twenty-four juvenile rats were divided into four groups (n=6): control group, received olive oil 0.5 ml/kg/day/ I.P. for 4 weeks, rosemary group received rosemary 75 mg/kg/day/ I.P. for 4 weeks, rotenone group received rotenone 1 mg/kg/day/ I.P. dissolved in olive oil for 4 days and combined group received rotenone 1 mg/kg/day/ I.P. for 4 days and rosemary 75 mg/kg/day/ I.P. for 4 weeks. Results: Rotenone group showed higher impulsivity with reduction in the recognition index and total locomotor activity. However, combined group showed significant improvement in the recognition index and the total locomotor activity. Neurochemical analysis disclosed that rotenone decreased levels of GSH and significantly increased lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. The administration of rosemary amended these neurochemical changes. Rotenone caused a significant increase in serum amyloid protein A and C-reactive protein levels indicating a marked state of inflammation. Rosemary ameliorated these biochemical changes. The immunohistochemical expression of tyrosine hydroxylase was decreased in the rotenone group. On the other hand, caspase-3 was increased in the rotenone group. PCR confirmed immunohistochemical results for gene expression. Conclusions: The findings of the behavioral, neurochemical, biochemical, immunohistochemical and molecular outcomes suggested that rosemary could fight oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in the prefrontal cortex of rotenone-induced ADHD in juvenile rats.


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How to Cite

Abdelrazik E, Hassan HM, Hamza E, Ezz Elregal FM, Elnagdy MH, Abdulhai EA. Beneficial role of rosemary extract on oxidative stress-mediated neuronal apoptosis in rotenone-induced attention deficit hyperactivity disease in juvenile rat model. Acta Biomed [Internet]. 2023 Jun. 14 [cited 2024 Jul. 21];94(3):e2023104. Available from: