Long-term health consequences of central precocious/early puberty (CPP) and treatment with Gn-RH analogue: a short update: Long term consequences of precocious puberty

Long-term health consequences of central precocious/early puberty (CPP) and treatment with Gn-RH analogue: a short update

Long term consequences of precocious puberty

Authors

  • Ashraf T Soliman Department of Pediatrics, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar
  • Nada Alaaraj Department of Pediatrics, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar
  • Vincenzo De Sanctis Pediatric and Adolescent Outpatient Clinic, Private Accredited Quisisana Hospital, Ferrara, Italy
  • Noor Hamed Department of Pediatrics, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar
  • Fawzia Alyafei Department of Pediatrics, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar
  • Shayma Ahmed Department of Pediatrics, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar

Keywords:

Central precocious puberty (CPP), final adult height, bone health, reproductive function, breast cancer, metabolic abnormalities, cardiovascular risk

Abstract

Background: The relationship between precocious or early puberty and its treatment has received significant research attention, yielding diverse outcomes. This short review aims to comprehensively analyze and summarize research articles to elucidate the potential link between precocious or early pubertal onset (CPP) and crucial health factors. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of studies published from ­January 2000 to March 2023, sourced from databases of Medline, PubMed, Google Scholar and Web of Science. We assessed the relationship between CPP and final adult height (FHt), bone health, reproductive function, body mass index, metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities, and increased cancer risk. Results: Upon reviewing and analyzing selected studies, the following key findings emerged: (a) treating CPP in girls before age 6-7 and in boys before age 9 improves FHt; (b) bone mineral density (BMD) decreases during GnRHa treatment but normalizes afterward, with no lasting effects on peak bone mass during puberty; (c) GnRH treatment does not negatively affect menstrual cycles; however, untreated CPP increases the risk of premature or early-onset menopause; (d) the incidence of PCOS/hyperandrogenemia may be slightly elevated in women with a history of CPP, but overall reproductive function remains largely unaffected; (e) earlier thelarche and menarche may enhance susceptibility to breast carcinogenesis; (f) CPP contributes to an increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes in both genders; (g) early menarche may slightly increase the risk of coronary heart disease and ischemic strokes and (h) early pubertal timing increases the risk of depression and anxiety disorders. Conclusion: Monitoring and early diagnosis of these conditions are of paramount importance for successful management.

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05-12-2023

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PEDIATRICS AND ADOLESCENT MEDICINE

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Long-term health consequences of central precocious/early puberty (CPP) and treatment with Gn-RH analogue: a short update: Long term consequences of precocious puberty . Acta Biomed [Internet]. 2023 Dec. 5 [cited 2024 Apr. 24];94(6):e2023222. Available from: https://www.mattioli1885journals.com/index.php/actabiomedica/article/view/15316

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