Postnatal growth of Infants with neonatal diabetes: insulin pump (CSII) versus Multiple Daily Injection (MDI) therapy

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Fawzia Alyafie
Ashraf T Soliman
Aml Sabt
Ahmed Elawwa
Fawzia Alkhalaf
Mahmoud Alzyoud
Vincenzo De Sanctis

Keywords

Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus, multiple daily injections, growth parameter, body mass index

Abstract

Background: Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (PNDM) is characterized by the onset of hyperglycemia within the first six months of life. Their diabetes is associated with partial or complete insulin deficiency with variable degree of intrauterine growth retardation. Insulin therapy corrects the hyperglycemia and results in improvement of growth. However, no studies have reported the longitudinal growth of these infants (head circumference, length and weight gain) after starting insulin therapy. Patients and methods: We assessed the growth parameters weight (Wt), Length (L) and head circumference (HC) in 9 infants with PNDM, during the first 2 years of their postnatal life. Five infants were on insulin pump therapy (CSII) and 4 were on multiple doses of insulin injection (MDI) therapy. Results: On insulin therapy for 20±4 months catch-up growth occurred in the majority of infants. L-SDS increased from -1.45 to -0.65 , HC-SDS from -2.3 to - 0.51 and Wt-SDS increased from -1.94 to - 0.7 at the end of the 20±4 months of age, after starting insulin therapy. Two out of 9 infants had a L-SDS <-2 , in 4 Wt-SDS was <-2 and in 1 the HC-SDS was <-2 at  at 20±4 months of postnatal growth.  The level of HbA1c was lower in infants on CSII compared to those on MDI (9.6±1%) compared to those on MDI (10.2±2%). However, growth parameters improved significantly in both groups (CSII and MDI) with no significant difference among them. Conclusions: Infants with PNDM with positive anti-GAD and antiTPO were diagnosed later and their intra-uterine and postnatal growth differed compared to those with negative antibodies. The majority of infants with PNDM exhibited significant catch up growth within the first two years of life irrespective of the etiology of diabetes. HbA1c appeared to be better in infants with PNDM on CSII therapy when compared to those on MDI therapy

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