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Vincenza Precone
Geraldo Krasi
Giulia Guerri
Alberto Madureri
Mariangela Piazzani
Sandro Michelini
Shila Barati
Tiziana Maniscalchi
Simone Bressan
Matteo Bertelli


Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, restrictive cardiomyopathy, left ventricular noncompaction, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy


The most common cardiomyopathies often present to primary care physicians with similar symptoms, despite the fact that they involve a variety of phenotypes and etiologies (1). Many have signs and symptoms common in heart failure, such as reduced ejection fraction, peripheral edema, fatigue, orthopnea, exertion dyspnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, presyncope, syncope and cardiac ischemia (1). In all cardiomyopathies, the cardiac muscle (myocardium) may be structurally and/or functionally impaired. They can be classified as hypertrophic, dilated, left-ventricular non compaction, restrictive and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathies.


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