Main Article Content
COVID-19, SARS Cov-2, children, symptoms.
Background and aim: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Its outbreak in many states of the world, forced the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare a pandemic. Currently, COVID-19 has infected 1 991 562 patients causing 130 885 deaths globally as of 16 April 2020. The aim of this review is to underline the epidemiological, clinical and management characteristics in children affected by COVID-19. Methods: We searched Pubmed, from January to April 2020, for the following search terms: “COVID-19”, “children”, “SARS-COV2”, “complications”, “epidemiology”, “clinical features”, focusing our attention mostly on epidemiology and symptoms of COVID-19 in children. Results: Usually, infants and children present milder symptoms of the disease with a better outcome than adults. Consequently, children may be considered an infection reservoir that may play a role as spreader of the infection in community.
2. World Health Organization. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Situation Report; World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland. 2020.
3. Niet A, Waanders BL, Walraven I. The role of children in the transmission of mild SARS-CoV-2 infection Acta Paediatr. 2020. doi: 10.1111/apa.15310
4. Matthai J, Shanmugam N, Sobhan P. Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) and the Gastrointestinal System in Children. Indian Pediatr. 2020. pii: S097475591600162
5. Fu L, Wang B, Yuan T et al. Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Infect. 2020. S0163-4453(20)30170-5.
6. Zhou P, Yang X.L, Wang X et al. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature 2020, 1–4
7. Jin Y, Yang H, Ji W et al. Virology, Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, and Control of COVID-19. Viruses. 2020. 12(4). pii: E372
8. Liu W, Zhang Q, Chen J et al. Detection of Covid-19 in Children in Early January 2020 in Wuhan, China. N Engl J Med. 2020. 382(14):1370-1371
9. Qing C, Yi-Ching C, Chyi-Liang C, Cheng-Hsun Chiu. SARS-CoV-2 infection in children: Transmission dynamics and clinical characteristics. J Formos Med Assoc. 2020. 119(3):670-673.
10. CDC. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): cases in United States, February 12–April 2, 2020. CDC 2020. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/downloads/pui-form.pdf.
11. Tagarro A, Epalza C, Santos M et al. Screening and Severity of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Children in Madrid, Spain. JAMA Pediatr doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.1346.
12. Yuanyuan D, Xi M, Yabin H et al. Epidemiology of COVID-19 Among Children in China. Pediatrics. 2020. e20200702
13. Chen H, Guo J, Wang C et al. Clinical characteristics and intrauterine vertical transmission Journal Pre-proof 6 potential of COVID-19 infection in nine pregnant women: a retrospective review of medical records. Lancet. 2020. 395(10226):809-815.
14. Chen Y, Peng H, Wang L et al. Infants Born to Mothers with a New Coronavirus (COVID-19). Front. Pediatr. 2020. Doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.00104
15. Saccone G, Carbone FI, Zullo F. The novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in pregnancy: What we need to know. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2020. pii: S0301-2115(20)30174-3.
16. Morand A, Fabre A, Minodier P et al. COVID-19 virus and children: What do we know? Arch Pediatr. 2020. 27(3):117-118
17. Brandon MH, Lippi G, Plebani M. Laboratory abnormalities in children with novel
coronavirus disease 2019. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2020. Doi: 10.1515/cclm-2020-0272
18. Du W, Yu J, Wang H. Clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in children compared with adults in Shandong Province, China. Infection. 2020. doi: 10.1007/s15010-020-01427-2.
19. Li W, Cui H, Li K, Fang Y, Li S. Chest computed tomography in children with COVID-19 respiratory infection. Pediatr Radiol. 2020. Doi: 10.1007/s00247-020-04656-7.
20. Liu H, Liu F,Li J et al. Clinical and CT imaging features of the Covid-19 pneumonia: focus on pregnant woman and children. J Infect. 2020. Doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2020.03.007
21. Vetrugno L, Bove T, Orso D et al. Our Italian Experience Using Lung Ultrasound for Identification, Grading and Serial Follow-up of Severity of Lung Involvement for Management of Patients with COVID-19. Echocardiography. 2020. doi: 10.1111/echo.14664
22. Fang F, Zhao D, Chen Y et al. Recommendations for the diagnosis, prevention and control of the 2019 novel coronavirus infection in children (first interim edition). Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi. 2020; 145(6): e20200834
23. Kunling Shen, Yonghong Yang, ·Tianyou Wang, Dongchi Zhao, Yi Jiang and al. Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of 2019 novel coronavirus infection in children: experts’ consensus statement. World Journal of Pediatrics 2020. doi.org/10.1007/s12519-020-00343-7
24. Zhang L, Liu Y. Potential interventions for novel coronavirus in China: A systematic review. J Med Virol 2020;92(5):479-90.
25. Zhang Y. The Epidemiological Characteristics of an Outbreak of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Diseases (COVID-19) China, 2020. Chinese Journal of Epidemiology. 2020. 41(2):145-151
26. Livingston E, Bucher K. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Italy. Jama. 2020. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.4344
27. CDC. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): cases in United States, April 14, 2020. CDC 2020. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/cases-updates/cases-in-us.html#demographic-characteristics
28. Lu X, Zhang L, Du H et al. SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Children. N Engl J Med. 2020. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc2005073