How can medical students suffering from hearing loss auscultate their patients?

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Michele Augusto Riva
Mattia Bava
Marco Italo D'Orso
Giovanni De Vito
Giancarlo Cesana



Auscultation is a fundamental part of medical examination.
It is generally performed using a stethoscope which
allows listening to body sounds, in particular of the heart
and lungs, the function of which can be initially explored
using this instrument. According to Rabinowitz et al., despite
improvements in diagnostic technology, “the ability to
auscultate a patient’s heart and lungs using a stethoscope
remains the basic occupational skill for physicians”...


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