Bone grafting in the pre-antiseptic era (historical review) Part 1. Beginning of the journey. From antiquity to the 1860 .

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Alexander Pankratov
Astemir Shajhaliev


bone graft, periosteum, ossification, transplantation, amputation, bone defect, regeneration process, replantation


In this paper, a systematic review of the state of bone plastic surgery was carried out before the antiseptic approach was widely introduced into world clinical practice. The experience of the first bone transplantation operations is analyzed in their relationship with the development of ideas about the regenerative regeneration of bone tissue. It is shown that, contrary to generally accepted ideas, it was at that time that the theoretical and practical foundation was laid, without which it would have been impossible to develop bone grafting in the following decades, discoveries were made, the significance of which could be understood only a century later. The first part of the article traces the background of the issue, starting with the earliest archaeological finds dating back to the II millennium BC, until the early 1860s, when the first theories began to be created, systematizing the observations accumulated by that time, and predetermined the formation of the future direction of medical science.

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