Lymphopenia and neutrophilia at admission predicts severity and mortality in patients with COVID-19: a meta-analysis

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Brandon Henry
Isaac Cheruiyot
Jens Vikse
Victor Mutua
Vincent Kipkorir
Justin Benoit
Mario Plebani
Nicola Bragazzi
Giuseppe Lippi


lymphocytes; neutrophils; SARS-CoV-2; outcomes; laboratory medicine; prognosis


Background: There is a compelling need to identify clinical and laboratory predictors of unfavorable clinical course and death in patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). A trend towards low lymphocyte count and high neutrophil counts in patients with poor outcomes has been reported by earlier studies. We aim to synthesize existing data evaluating the relationship between clinical outcomes and abnormal neutrophil and lymphocyte counts at admission in COVID-19 patients. Methods: An electronic search was carried out in PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) to identify eligible studies reporting frequency data on neutrophilia and lymphopenia at admission in hospitalization in COVID-19 patients. Pooled odds ratios of clinical outcomes for each parameter were calculated using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis. Results: A total of 22 studies (4,969 patients) were included in this meta-analysis. Lymphopenia at admission was found to be significantly associated with increased odd of progression to severe disease (odds ratio [OR], 4.20; 95% confidence interval [95CI%], 3.46-5.09) and death (OR, 3.71; 95%CI, 1.63-8.44). Neutrophilia at admission was also found to be significantly associated with increased odd of progression to severe disease (OR, 7.99; 95%CI, 1.77-36.14) and death (OR, 7.87; 95%CI, 1.75-35.35). Subgroup analysis revealed that COVID-19 patients with severe lymphopenia (<0.5 x10×9/L) had 12-fold increased odds of in-hospital mortality. Conclusion: Admission lymphopenia and neutrophilia are associated with poor outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Regular monitoring and early and even more aggressive intervention shall hence be advisable in patients with low lymphocyte and high neutrophil counts. These variables may be useful in risk stratification models.


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