ChatGPT and healthcare: is the future already here? Opportunities, challenges, and ethical concerns. A narrative mini-review

ChatGPT and healthcare: is the future already here? Opportunities, challenges, and ethical concerns. A narrative mini-review


  • Michele Venosa University of L'Aquila
  • Emilio Romanini GLOBE, Italian Working Group on Evidence-Based Orthopedics, Via Nicola Martelli, 3, 00197, Rome, Italy
  • Simone Cerciello Unit of Orthopedics, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli IRCCS, L.go Agostino Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome, Italy
  • Massimo Angelozzi Department of Life, Health and Environmental Sciences, University of L'Aquila, Via Vetoio Coppito 2, 67100, L'Aquila, Italy
  • Manuel Graziani Fisiosalaria Medical Wellness, via San Gaggio, 5, 00138, Rome, Italy
  • Vittorio Calvisi Department of Life, Health and Environmental Sciences, University of L'Aquila, Via Vetoio Coppito 2, 67100, L'Aquila, Italy


ChatGPT, artificial intelligence, AI, natural language processing, medical education, scientific writing, healthcare


ChatGPT is an artificial intelligence (AI) powered chatbot trained on vast human language databases able to generate human-like answers to a wide variety of questions and topics. It uses natural language processing and machine learning algorithms to understand and answer users' questions simulating human interaction. ChatGPT has recently received wide attention for its performance in different areas of common life and it can be perfectly used in healthcare with great perspectives. It can improve patient outcomes, increase efficiency, disseminate medical knowledge, and has the potential to transform healthcare since it continues to evolve and play an increasingly important role. In this paper we analyze how this technology can impact healthcare and revolutionize the traditional approach to Medicine, by examining the opportunities for patients and health professionals (including medical education, research, and academic scientific production), but also the challenges and ethical issues concerning its use. We are at the very beginning of a new era, filled with light and shadow, and further improvements and regulations are needed to ensure its proper use in healthcare.


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How to Cite

ChatGPT and healthcare: is the future already here? Opportunities, challenges, and ethical concerns. A narrative mini-review. Acta Biomed [Internet]. 2024 Feb. 28 [cited 2024 May 20];95(1):e2024005. Available from:

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