Main Article Content
Fitness Applications, Health Applications, Physical Activity, Exercise
Study Objectives: This study aimed to determine the usage status of Turkish infrastructure applications in the range of 4.5-5.0 points collected under the title fitness, health, and exercise in the Android Operating System Google Play Store application during the COVID-19 pandemic process. Methods: The usage cases of mobile fitness, health, and exercise applications used by people were collected according to document analysis. Statistical analyzes were made using the SPSS 24 statistical program. Result: There were 95 applications scored in the range of 4.5-5.0 points. 56% of the applications were paid and 44% were free. 35% of users preferred free and 65% paid applications. While the first application on the market was released in 2010, the last application was released in 2020. There were 72 applications released before COVID-19 and 23 applications released after. The number of downloads over the determined score of the applications was 5.0 points 0.5%, 4.9 points 39%, 4.8 points 40%, 4.7 points 8%, 4.6 points 8%, and 4.5 points 5%. Within the application, only applications for males were 20.21%, applications for females only 28.27% and applications for both males and females were 48.51%. It was determined that the usage of mobile sports applications increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. It was observed that the usage rate of females was higher than the rate of males. It was determined that most applications were in the "health and fitness" category according to the restriction status within the platform, and the use of paid applications was more than free ones. Conclusion: It was thought that the applications to be produced on such digital platforms to protect and increase the level of physical activity of people under epidemic diseases and similar conditions were more comprehensive and encouraging to prevent various physical, psychological, and mental negative effects of sedentary life.
2. Jimenez-Pavon D, Carbonell-Baeza A, Lavie CJ. Physical exercise as therapy to fight against the mental and physical consequences of COVID-19 quarantine: Special focus in older people. Prog Cardiovasc Dis, 2020; [Epub ahead of print].
3. Kanık ZH. COVID-19 pandemisinde ev tabanlı fiziksel aktivite. Gazi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi, 2020; 46-51.
4. Turgut M, Soylu Y, Metin SN. Physical activity, night eating, and mood state profiles of athletes during the COVID-19 pandemic. Progress in Nutrition, 2020; 22. https://doi.org/10.23751/pn.v22i2-S.10567
5. Mattioli AV, Sciomer S, Cocchi C, Maffei S, Gallina S. Quarantine during COVID-19 outbreak: Changes in diet and physical activity increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 2020; 30(9), 1409-1417.
6. Turgut M, Soylu Y. Effects of 8-week zumba exercise on blood lipids profile in sedentary women. Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, 2021; 25(3), 172–177. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.15561/26649837.2021.0305
7. Chekroud SR, Gueorguieva R, Zheutlin AB, Paulus M, Krum- Holz HM, Krystal JH, Chekroud, AM. Association between physical exercise and mental health in 1.2 million individuals in the USA between 2011 and 2015: A cross-sectional study. The Lancet Psychiatry, 2018; 5(9), 739–746. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(18)30227-X
8. Mathieu RA, Powell-Wiley TM, Ayers CR, McGuire DK, Khera A, Das SR, Lakoski SG. Physical activity participation, health perceptions, and cardiovascular disease mortality in a multiethnic population: The Dallas heart study. Ameri- can Heart Journal, 2012; 163(6), 1037–1040. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. ahj.2012.03.005
9. Ozemek C, Laddu DR, Lavie CJ, Claeys H, Kaminsky, LA, Ross R, ... Blair SN. An update on the role of cardiorespiratory fitness, structured exercise and lifestyle physical activity in preventing cardiovascular disease and health risk. Progress in cardiovascular diseases, 2018; 61(5-6), 484-490.
10. Ozemek C, Lavie CJ, Rognmo, Ø. Global physical activity levels-Need for intervention. Progress in cardiovascular diseases, 2019; 62(2), 102-107.
11. Khaleghzadeh H, Afzalpour ME, Ahmadi MM. Effect of high intensity interval training along with Oligopin supplementation on some inflammatory indices and liver enzymes in obese male Wistar rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease Obesity Medicine, 2020; p. 17100177, 10.1016/j.obmed.2019.100177
12. WHO. Guideline Stay physically active during self-quarantine. 2020; Access address: http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/healthemergencies/coronavirus-COVID-19/novel-coronavirus-2019-ncovtechnical-guidance/stay-physically-active-during-self-quarantine
13. Stephens J, Allen J. Mobile phone interventions to increase physical activity and reduce weight: a systematic review. J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2013; 28(4):320–9.
14. Dallinga JM, Mennes M, Alpay L, Bijwaard H, Baart de la Faille-Deutekom M. App use, physical activity and healthy lifestyle: A cross sectional study. BMC Public Health, 2015; 15,1-9.
15. Cole-Lewis H, Kershaw T. Text messaging as a tool for behavior change in disease prevention and management. 2010; Epidemiol Rev.32:56Y69.
16. Glynn LG, Hayes PS, Casey M, Glynn F, Alvarez-Iglesias A, Newell J, … Murphy AW. Effectiveness of a smartphone application to promote physical activity in primary care: the SMART MOVE randomised controlled trial. British Journal of General Practice, 2014; 64(624), e384-e391.
17. Lau PW, Lau EY, Wong DP, Ransdell L. A systematic review of information and communication technology–based interventions for promoting physical activity behavior change in children and adolescents. Journal of medical Internet research, 2011; 13(3), e48.
18. Kopmaz B, Arslanoğlu A. Mobil sağlık ve akıllı sağlık uygulamaları. Sağlık Akademisyenleri Dergisi, 2018; 5(4), 251-255.
19. Bhuyan S, Lu N, Chandak A, Kim H, Wyant D, Bhatt J, Kedia S, Chang C. Use Of Mobile Health Applications For Health-Seeking Behavior Among Us Adults, Journal Of Medical Systems, 2016; 40: 153
20. DiFilippo KN, Huang WH, Andrade JE, Chapman-Novakofski KM. The use of mobile apps to improve nutrition outcomes: A systematic literature review. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 2015; 21(5), 243–253. doi:10.1177/1357633x15572203
21. Paramastri R, Pratama SA, Ho DKN, Purnamasari SD, Mohammed AZ, Galvin CJ, ... Iqbal U. Use of mobile applications to improve nutrition behaviour: A systematic review. Computer methods and programs in biomedicine, 2020; 192, 105459.
22. Pavel P, Lukas J, Jan, Z. Mobile apps that support physical activities and potential of these applications in physical educaiton at school. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 2016; 1(1), pp. 176-194.
23. Spring, B., Schneider, K. and McFadden, H.G. (2012). Multiple behavior changes in diet and activity: a randomized controlled trial using mobile technology. Arch Intern Med; 172: 789–96.
24. Turner-McGrievy GM, Beets MW, Moore JB. Comparison of traditional versus mobile app self-monitoring of physical activity and dietary intake among overweight adults participating in an mHealth weight loss program. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2013; 20: 513–5188.
25. Intille SS, Lester J, Sallis JF, Duncan G. New horizons in sensor development. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 2012; 44(1 Suppl 1), S24.
26. Liu C, Zhu Q, Holroyd AK, Seng KE. Status and trends of mobile-health applications for ıos devices: a developer’s perspective, The Journal Of Systems And Software, 2011; 84, 2022-2033.
27. Yang TY, Silverman DY. Mobile health applications: the patchwork of legal and liability ıssues suggests strategies to ımprove oversight, Health Affaırs, 2014; 33, 2: 222–227.
28. Güler E, Eby G. Akıllı ekranlarda mobil sağlık uygulamaları. Journal of Research in Education and Teaching Ağustos 2015; 4:3
29. Verhoeven A. Everything you need to develop your fitness app marketing plan. 2020. Access address: https://www.adjust.com/blog/fitness-app-marketing-plan/
30. Shoeb A. Global Fitness App Market Analysis, 2021. 2021. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/350089845_Global_Fitness_App_Market_Analysis_2021 [accessed Apr 06 2021].
31. Tucker I. Nike, Strava and Instagram: 10 of the best apps for runners. The Guardian. 2017; Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2017/aug/13/10-best-apps-for-runners-fitness
32. Holzer A, Ondrus J. Mobile application market: A developer’s perspective. Telematics and informatics, 2011; 28(1), 22-31.
33. Kang S. Factors influencing intention of mobile application use. International Journal of Mobile Communications, 2014; 12(4), 360-379.
34. Jasiulewicz A, Waśkowski Z. Possibilities of Brand Promotion Through Lifestyle Mobile Sports Applications. Marketing Instytucji Naukowych i Badawczych, 2020; (3, 37), 1-16.
35. Kirwan M, Duncan MJ, Vandelanotte C, Mummery WK. Design, development, and formative evaluation of a smartphone application for recording and monitoring physical activity levels: the 10,000 Steps “iStepLog”. Health Education & Behavior, 2013; 40(2), 140-151.
36. Fanning J, Mullen S, McAuley E. Increasing physical activity with mobile devices: a meta-analysis. J Med Internet Res. 2012; 14(6):161–9.
37. Janssen M, Scheerder J, Thibaut E, Brombacher A, Vos, S. Who uses running apps and sports watches? Determinants and consumer profiles of event runners' usage of running-related smartphone applications and sports watches. PLoS One, 2017; 12(7). Retrieved from https://search-1proquest-1com-1000757ap0569.han.bg.sggw.pl/docview/1901780453?accountid=48272
38. Sun H, Zhang P. The role of moderating factors in user technology acceptance. International journal of human-computer studies, 2006; 64(2), 53-78.
39. Jae-Pil H, Dun JK, Yukyoum K. Sport fans in a "smart sport" (SS) age: Drivers of smartphone use for sport consumption. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, 2017; 18(3), 281–297
40. Büyüköztürk Ş, Kılıç Çakmak E, Erkan Akgün Ö, Karadeniz Ş, Demirel F. Bilimsel araştırma yöntemleri: Pegem Akademi Yayınları, Ankara, 2013.
41. Statista. Google Play: number of available medical apps as of Q4 2020. 2021. Access address: https://www.statista.com/statistics/779919/health-apps-avaialable-google-play-worldwide/
42. Stewart C. Total mhealth market size forecast worldwide 2016-2025. 2018. Access address: https://www.statista.com/statistics/938544/mhealth-market-size-forecast-globally/
43. Nehabaluni. Mobil medikal app: a game changing healthcare inovation. 2020. Access address:https://www.healthworkscollective.com/mobile-medical-apps-a-game-changing-healthcare-innovation/
44. Uslu B, Gür Ş, Eren T, Özcan E. Mobil uygulama seçiminde etkili olan kriterlerin belirlenmesi ve örnek uygulama. İstanbul İktisat Dergisi, 2020; 70(1), 113-139.
45. Liang Y, Lu X. A Research on the Profit Model of Mobile Fitness Industry. DEStech Transactions on Economics, Business and Management, 2018; (icems).
46. Tezcan C. Sağlığa yenilikçi bir bakış açısı mobil sağlık, İstanbul, TÜSİAD Yayınları, 201629-71.
47. Stahl O, et al. A mobile fitness companion. The Fourth International Workshop on Human-Computer Conversation. 2008.
48. Hainzinger B. Fitness app installs up 67% since COVID-19. 2020; Access address: https://appdevelopermagazine.com/7196/2020/8/20/Fitness-app-installs-up-67%25-since-COVID-19
49. Xie Z, Nacioglu A, Or C. Prevalence, demographic correlates, and perceived ımpacts of mobile health app use amongst chinese adults: cross-sectional survey study. Eysenbach G, ed. JMIR mHealth and uHealth. 2018; 6(4): 1–9
50. Şipka, S. (2019). Mobil spor uygulamalarının sportif çalışmalara etkisinin araştırılması ve yeni bir mobil spor uygulamasının tasarlanması (Doctoral dissertation, Marmara Universitesi (Turkey).
51. Güner PD, Bölükbaşı H, Kokaçya SH, Yengil E, Özer C. Mustafa kemal üniversitesi öğrencilerinin mobil sağlık uygulamalarını kullanımı. Konuralp Medical Journal/Konuralp Tip Dergisi, 2018; 10(3).
52. İçözü T. 2020’de mobil sağlık ve fitness uygulaması kullanımı dünya genelinde yükseldi. 2020. Access address: https://webrazzi.com/2020/08/25/2020-de-mobil-saglik-ve-fitness-uygulamasi-kullanimi-dunya-genelinde-yukseldi/