Main Article Content
women, lipid metabolism
Background: It is known that regularly done exercises have physical, physiological, social and spiritual effects on people. In this currently performed study, it was intended to investigate the effect of regular cardio tennis exercises on lipid metabolism of middle-aged sedentary women. Methods: The sample group of this study is consisted of 30 healthy middle-aged sedentary women with a mean age of 44.40 ± 3.89. Body components of exercise group subjects were analyzed by bioelectrical impedance analyzer before the program, during mid-program (in the 5th week) and after the program (in the 10th week) and their blood samples were taken so as to determine the lipid metabolism of exercise group subjects. To fulfill this aim, depending on cardio tennis exercises carried out for 10 weeks, three days a week for one hour; body components, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, changes in the leptin and ghrelin hormone levels of middle age sedentary women have been examined. Results: As a result of the findings obtained in the research, it was identified that HDL cholesterol levels of sedentary women who participated in the study have shown a statistically significant increase after 10 weeks (p <0.05). Although total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol parameters were found to have decreased, it was observed that there was no statistically significant difference. Besides, it was identified that there was no statistically significant difference in the blood leptin and ghrelin hormone levels of sedentary women after 10 weeks of exercise (p> 0.05). Conclusion: Consequently, it was concluded that regularly performed cardio tennis exercises had a positive effect on body components of sedentary women while it only increased HDL-cholesterol lipid, which is included in the metabolism parameters.
2. Bouchard, C. E., Shephard, R. J., & Stephens, T. E. (1994). Physical activity, fitness, and health: International proceedings and consensus statement. In International Consensus Symposium on Physical Activity, Fitness, and Health, 2nd, May, 1992, Toronto, ON, Canada. Human Kinetics Publishers.
3. Arcury, T. A., Snively, B. M., Bell, R. A., Smith, S. L., Stafford, J. M., Wetmore‐Arkader, L. K., & Quandt, S. A. (2006). Physical activity among rural older adults with diabetes. The Journal of Rural Health, 22(2), 164-168.
4. Utter, A. C., Whitcomb, D. C., Nieman, D. C., Butterworth, D. E., & Vermillion, S. S.,(2000). Effects of exercise training on gallbladder function in an obese female population. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 32(1), 41-45.
5. Feito, Y., Patel, P., Sal Redondo, A., & Heinrich, K. M. (2019). Effects of Eight Weeks of High Intensity Functional Training on Glucose Control and Body Composition among Overweight and Obese Adults. Sports, 7(2), 51.
6. Hallal, P. C., Andersen, L. B., Bull, F. C., Guthold, R., Haskell, W., Ekelund, U., & Lancet Physical Activity Series Working Group. (2012). Global physical activity levels: surveillance progress, pitfalls, and prospects. The lancet, 380(9838), 247-257.
7. World Health Organization. (2010). Global recommendations on physical activity for health.
8. Lee, H.C., Heo, T.,(2014). Effects of exercise therapy on blood lipits of obese women. Journal of physical therapy science. 26(11), 1675-1677.
9. Dirlewanger, M., Di Vetta, V., Giusti, V., Schneiter, P., Jequier, E., & Tappy, L.,(1999). Effect of moderate physical activity on plasma leptin concentration in humans. European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology, 79(4), 331-335.
10. Houmard, J. A., Cox, J. H., MacLean, P. S., & Barakat, H. A.,(2000). Effect of short-term exercise training on leptin and insulin action. Metabolism, 49(7), 858-861.
11. Olive JL, Miller GD.,(2001). Differential effectsof maximaland moderate-intensity runs on plasma leptin in healthy trained subjects. Nutrition ; 17(5): 36-9
12. Pomerants T, Tillmann V, Jürimäe T et al.,(2006) Relationship between ghrelin and anthropometrical, body composition parameters and testosterone levels in boys at diVerent stages of puberty. J Endocrinol Invest 29:962–967
13. Kyriazis, G. A., Caplan, J. D., Lowndes, J., Carpenter, R. L., Dennis, K. E., Sivo, S. A., & Angelopoulos, T. J. (2007). Moderate exercise-induced energy expenditure does not alter leptin levels in sedentary obese men. Clinical journal of sport medicine, 17(1), 49-51.
14. Pérusse, L., Collier, G., Gagnon, J., Leon, A. S., Rao, D. C., Skinner, J. S., & Bouchard, C.,(1997). Acute and chronic effects of exercise on leptin levels in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology, 83(1), 5-10.
15. Pasman WJ, Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Saris WHM.,(1998) The effect of exercise training on leptin levels in obese males. Am J Endocrinol, Physiol Metab 274:E280–E286
16. Noland RC, Baker JT, Boudreau SR, Kobe RW, Tanner CJ, Hickner RC, et al.,(2001). Effect of intense training on plasma leptinin male and female swimmers. Med Sci Sports Exerc ;33: 227-31.
17. Shin, H.İ., Lee, H.Y., Cho, H.Y., Park,Y,J., Moon, H.H., Lee, S.H., Lee, S.K., Kim, M.K.,(2014). Effects of new sports tennis type exercise on aerobic capacity, follicle stimulating hormone and N-terminal telopeptide in the postmenopausal women. Journal of exercise rehabilitation, 10(2), 89-91
18. Murphy, A. P., Duffield, R., & Reid, M.,(2014). Tennis for Physical Health: Acute Age-and Gender-Based Physiological Responses to Cardio Tennis. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 28(11), 3172-3178.
19. Saavedra, J. M., De La Cruz, E., Escalante, Y., & Rodríguez, F. A.,(2007). Influence of a medium-impact aquaerobic program on health-related quality of life and fitness level in healthy adult females. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 47(4), 468.
20. Çolakoğlu, F. F., Karacan, S.,(2006). Genç bayanlar ile orta yaş bayanlarda aerobik egzersizin bazı fizyolojik parametrelere etkisi. Kastamonu Eğitim Dergisi, 14(1): 277-284.
21. Wang, Y., & Xu, D. (2017). Effects of aerobic exercise on lipids and lipoproteins. Lipids in health and disease, 16(1), 132.
22. Ferrauti, A., Weber, K., & Strüder, H. K.,(1997). Effects of tennis training on lipid metabolism and lipoproteins in recreational players. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 31(4), 322-327
23. Kostrzewa-Nowak, D., Nowak, R., Jastrzębski, Z., Zarębska, A., Bichowska, M., Drobnik-Kozakiewicz, I., & Cięszczyk, P.,(2015). Effect of 12-week-long aerobic training programme on body composition, aerobic capacity, complete blood count and blood lipid profile among young women. Biochemia medica,25(1), 103-113.
24. Klok M, Jakobsdottir S, Drent M. The role of leptin and ghrelin in the regulation of food intake and body weight in humans: a review. Obesity Reviews 2007;8:21-34
25. Keller P. Leptin gene expression and systemic levels in healthy men: effect of exercise, carbohydrate, interleukin-6, and epinephrine. Journal of Applied Physiology 2005;98:1805-1812.
26. Hickey MS, Houmard JA, Considine RV, Tyndall GL, Midg- ette JB, Gavigan KE, Weidner ML, McCammon MR, Israel RG, Caro JF. Gender-dependent effects of exercise training on serum leptin levels in humans. The American Journal of Physiology 1997;272: E562–E566.
27. Kraemer, R.R., Kraemer, G.R., Acevedo, E.O., Hebert, E.P., Temple, E., Bates, M., Etie, A., Haltom, R., Quinn, S., and Castracane, V.D.,(1999). Effects of aerobic exercise on serum leptin levels in obese women. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 80: 154-158.
28. Kondo, T., Kobayashi, I., & Murakami, M.,(2006). Effect of exercise on circulating adipokine levels in obese young women. Endocrine journal, 53(2), 189-195.
29. Murakami, T., Horigome, H., Tanaka, K., Nakata, Y., Katayama, Y., & Matsui, A.,(2007). Effects of diet with or without exercise on leptin and anticoagulation proteins levels in obesity. Blood coagulation & fibrinolysis, 18(5), 389-394.
30. Koushki, MH., Hamedinia, MR., Mollanovruzi, A.,(2012). The Response of Plasma Leptin and Some Selected Hormones to One Session of Progressive Running in Non-athlete Males. Iranian Journal of Health and Physical Activity 3 (1), 50-55.
31. Shahram S, Elham Y, Heshmatolah P, Abdolali B.,(2012). The Effect Of Intermittent Aerobic Exercise On Serum Leptin And İnsulin Resistance İndex In Overweight Female Students, Annals of Biological Research. 3 (6):2636-2641.
32. Benso, A., Broglio, F., Aimaretti, G., Lucatello, B., Lanfranco, F., Ghigo, E., & Grottoli, S.,(2007). Endocrine and metabolic responses to extreme altitude and physical exercise in climbers. European Journal of Endocrinology, 157(6), 733-740.
33. Mizia-Stec, K., Zahorska-Markiewicz, B., Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, M., Janowska, J., Mucha, Z., Holecki, M., & Gasiora, Z.,(2008). Ghrelin as a potential blood pressure reducing factor in obese women during weight loss treatment. Endokrynologia Polska, 59(3), 207-211.
34. Martins, C., Kulseng, B., King, N. A., Holst, J. J., & Blundell, J. E.,(2010). The effects of exercise-induced weight loss on appetite-related peptides and motivation to eat. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 95(4), 1609-1616.
35. Uritani, D., Matsumoto, D., Asano, Y., Yoshizaki, K., Nishida, Y., & Shima, M. (2013). Effects of regular exercise and nutritional guidance on body composition, blood pressure, muscle strength and health-related quality of life in community-dwelling Japanese women. Obesity research & clinical practice, 7(2), e155-e163.