Chemical characterization of arabic gum- chitosan-propolis beads and determination of α-amylase inhibition effect Arabic gum- Chitosan-Propolis Beads and Their Inhibition Effect on α-Amylase

Main Article Content

Merve Keskin


Diabetus Mellitus, Arabic gum, chitoan, encapsulation


Propolis is a resinous mixture collected by honey bees from various plant secretions, tree bark and
leaves. It has been used as a natural and supplementary food, increasing the body’s defense mechanism against infections. It has many biological activity such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antitumor, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic effect etc. Because of its resinous structure, propolis should be used as extracts and ethanol/water solution (70%) is the best solvent for extraction of raw propolis. The ethanol solution limits the consumption of this valuable natural product in foods and apitherapy. Propolis extract was microencapsulated using Arabic gum and chitosan to reduce the limiting effect of ethanol. Inhibition effect of microcapsules on α-amylase enzyme was investigated. The encapsulation efficiency was found 73.46% and the Arabic gumchitosan-propolis capsules (beads) size was found 784.1 nm in average. Antioxidant capacity of propolis extract was found 347.16 µg Trolox/g. Release properties of capsules were determined and capsules were released in the pH 7.4 and pH 1.5. Inhibition effect on α-amylase enzyme was found (IC50) 0.55 mg/mL. It
is clear that Arabic gum-chitosan-propolis capsules could be used as a supplementary food in the treatment
of Diabetes Mellitus.


Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 125 | PDF Downloads 27


1. Kahn CR., Weir GC., King GL., Jacobson AM., Moses AC., Smith RJ. Joslin’s Diabetes Mellitus. Edition. Lippincott Willams-Wilkins 2005.
2. Alam F., Islam MA., Gan SH., Khalil, MI. Honey: a potential therapeutic agent for managing diabetic wounds, Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2014; 2014:169130.
3. Öntürk H, Özbek H, Deneysel diyabet oluşturulması ve kan şeker seviyesinin ölçülmesi. Genel Tıp Dergisi 2007; 17(4): 231-6.
4. Ahn M. R., Kumazawa S., Usui Y., Nakamura J., Matsuka M., Zhu F., Nakayama T. Antioxidant activity and constituents of propolis collected in various areas of China. Food Chemistry 2007; 101: 1383-1392.
5. Aliyazıcıoğlu R., Şahin H., Ertürk O., Ulusoy E., Kolaylı S. Properties of phenolic composition and biological activity of propolis from Turkey. International Journal of Food Properties 2013; 16: 277-287.
6. Sahlan M, Supardi T. Encapsulation of Indonesian Propolis by Casein Micelle, International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences 2013; 4: 1, 297-305
7. Huang S., Zhang C., Wang K., Li G, Hu F. Recent Advances in the Chemical Composition of Propolis, Molecules 2014; 19,19610-19632
8. Keskin M, Kolaylı S. Standardization of Propolis, is it Possible? Uludağ Arıcılık Dergisi – Uludag Bee Journal 2018; 18 (2): 101-110
9. Ahmet, F. Toxicological Effects of Ethanol on Human Health, Critical Reviews in Toxicology 2008; 25 (4), 347-367
10. Gökmen S, Palamutoğlu S, Sarıçoban C. Gıda Endüstrisinde Enkapsülasyon Uygulamaları Electronic Journal of Food Technologies 2012; 7: 1, 36-50
11. Li F., Awale S., Tezuka Y., Kadota S. Cytotoxic constituents from brazilian red propolis and their structure–activity relationship. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2008; 16, 5434–544.
12. Keskin M, Keskin S, Kolaylı S. Preparation of alcohol free propolis-alginate microcapsules characterization and release property. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 2019; 108: 89-96.
13. Avadi MR, Sadeghi A M M, Dounighi NM, Dinarvand R, Atyabi F,
Rafiee-Tehrani M. Ex Vivo Evaluation of Insulin Nanoparticles Using Chitosan and Arabic Gum. ISRN Pharmaceutics 2011, 6
14. Slinkard K., Singleton V. Total phenol analysis, automation, and comparison with manual methods. Am J Enol Vitic. 1977; 28:49-55.
15. Benzie I.F.F., Strain, J.J., Ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay: direct measure of total antioxidant activity of biological fluids and modified version for simultaneous measurement of total antioxidant power and ascorbic acid concentration, Methods in Enzymology 1999;299, 15–27
16. Trusheva B., Popova M., Koendhori E. B., Tsvetkova I, Naydenski C, Bankova V. Indonesian propolis: Chemical composition, biological activity and botanical origin. Natural Product Research 2011; 25: 606–613
17. Keskin M, Keskin S, Kolaylı S. Comparing the Release of Alginate-Propolis Micro Capsules in an in vitro Digestion System with the Release of Raw Propolis Uludağ Arıcılık Dergisi – Uludag Bee Journal 2018; 18 (2): 94-100
18. Korkmaz O., Girgin B., Sunna Ç., Yavaşer R., Karagözler A. A. Production and investigation of controlled drug release properties of tamoxifen loaded alginate-gum arabic microbeads. JOTCSA 2016; 3(3):47- 58.
19. Bernfeld P. Amylases α and β. Methods in Enzymology 1955; 1: 149-158.
20. Duran, N., Marcato, P.D., Buffo, C.M.S., De Azevedo, M.M. M. Esposito, E. Poly(ε-caprolactone)/Propolis Extract: Microencapsulation and Antibacterial Activity Evaluation, Pharmazie, 2007; 62: 287-290.
21. Reis, A. S., Diedrich, C., Moura, C., Pereira, D., Almeida, J., Silva, L. D., Plata-Oviedo, M. S., Tavares, R. A. Carpes, S. T. Physico-chemical Characteristis of Microencapsulated Propolis Co-product Extract and its Effect on Storage Stability of Burger Meat During Storage at -150C, LWT- Food Science and Technology 2017; 76: 306-313.
22. Silva F., Favaro-Trindade C., Alencar S., Thomazini M., Balieiro J. Physico-chemical properties, antioxidant activity and stability of spray-dried propolis. Journal of ApiProduct and ApiMedical Science 2011; 3(2): 94–100.
23. Cavalu S, Bisboaca S, Mates IM, Pasca PM, Laslo V, Costea T, Fritea L, Vicas S.
Novel Formulation Based on Chitosan-Arabic Gum Nanoparticles Entrapping Propolis Extract. Rev.Chim.(Bucharest) 2018; 69:12
24. Zhang H, Wang G, Beta T, Dong J. Inhibitory Properties of Aqueous Ethanol Extracts of Propolis on Alpha-Glucosidase. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015; 1-7.
25. Popova M, Lyoussi B, Aazza S, Antunes D, Bankova V, Miguel G. Antioxidant and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Properties and Chemical Profiles of Moroccan Propolis. Natural Product Communications 2015; 10 (11)