Main Article Content
: media usage, PA, nutritional approach, HEI 2015 index, IPAQ, BMI.
The purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between the media usage, physical activities (PA) and nutritional approach for Romanian students in the Eastern part of Romania, from Galati County. The cross-sectional study design was designed for this purpose in order to achieve the objectives. A total of 1143 subjects, male and female students aged between 19 ± 25 years old, answered self-reported anonymous questionnaires about their usage of the media in a typical week (from Monday to Sunday) (watching TV, computers or PC games). Also, the IPAQ questionnaires were designed to assess their physical activities (in which median values of combined activities were expressed in the metabolic equivalent task (MET)·minute/week) and a self-reported anonymous Diet History Questionnaire III was created to establish their food habits quantified in Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2015 score. Anthropometric measurements were used to calculate the body mass index (BMI) of the subjects. Within this study, randomly selected different subgroups of 212 subjects, male and female students, with the same age, between 19 ±25 years old also participated in an ancillary similar study with a set of questionnaires and interviews about their time of viewing TV or using other ways of media, (e.g.: computers, PC games, etc.), and the physical activities and nutritional habits that they have during this time. In the main study, it was found the decrease of the number of hours allocated for TV or other forms of media, from 24.3 h/week to 13.6 h/week which was associated with the increase of physical activities of the male students from 386 MET to 5347 MET, and for female students, there was an increase in physical activity from 346 MET to 4525 MET. In terms of nutritional habits, there was an increase in the HEI index from 51.3 to 56.7 for male students and from 51.6 to 55.8 for female students. The BMI index fell from 25.12 to 21.18 for male students and from 26.32 to 20.64 for female students. The cross-sectional study of the results showed a correlation between media usage, PA and nutritional approach (p≤ 0.05). The statistical analysis showed that there are strong positive correlations between the indices calculated in the main study and in the ancillary study.
2. Aadahl M., Kjaer M., Jorgensen T., Influence of time spent on TV viewing and vigorous-intensity physical activity on cardiovascular biomarkers. The Inter 99 study. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil., 2007, 14(5):660-5.
3. Haapanen-Niemi N., Miilunpalo S., Pasanen M., Vuori I., Oja P., Malmberg J., Body mass index, physical inactivity and low level of physical fitness as determinants of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality-16 y follow-up of middle-aged and elderly men and women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord., 2000, 24(11):1465-74.
4. Hu F. B., Li T. Y., Colditz G. A., Willett W. C., Manson J. E. Television watching and other sedentary behaviors in relation to risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. Jama 2003, 289(14):1785-91.
5. Hu F. B., Leitzmann M. F., Stampfer M. J., Colditz G. A., Willett W. C., Rimm E.B., Physical activity and television watching in relation to risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus in men. Arch Intern Med., 2001, 161(12):1542-8.
6. Leitzmann M. F., Park Y., Blair A., Ballard-Barbash R., Mouw T., Hollenbeck A. R., et al., Physical Activity recommendations and decreased risk of mortality. Arch Intern Med., 2007, 167(22):2453-60.
7. Kesaniemi Y. K., Danforth E. Jr. Jensen M. D., Kopelman P. G., Lefebvre P., Reeder B. A., Dose-response issues concerning physical activity and health: an evidence-based symposium. Med Sci Sports Exerc., 2001, 33(6 ): S351-8.
8. Kirsten K. D., Simon J. M., Leann L. B., Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between TV viewing and girls’ body mass index, overweight status, and percentage of body fat, The Journal of Pediatrics, 2006, 149 (1):32-37.
9. Pate R. R., O'Neill J. R., Lobelo F. The evolving definition of "sedentary". Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2008, 36:173-178.
10. Healy G. N., Dunstan D. W., Salmon J., Shaw J. E., Zimmet P. Z., Owen N., Television time and continuous metabolic risk in physically active adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008, 40(4):639-45.
11. Hamilton M. T., Hamilton D. G., Zderic T. W., Role of low energy expenditure and sitting in obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Diabetes. 2007, 56(11):2655-67.
12. French S. A., Story M., Jeffery R. W., Environmental influences on eating and physical activity. Annu Rev Public Health, 2001(22), 309-335.
13. Salmon J. A., Bauman D., Crawford A. T., and Owen N. The association between television viewing and overweight among Australian adults participating in varying levels of leisure-time physical activity. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord., 2000, (24):600-606.
14. Hicks R. A., Mc Tighe S., Juarez M. Sleep duration and eating behaviors in college students. Percept Mot Skills. 1986, 62(1):25-26.
15. Oliver G., Wardle J. Perceived effects of stress on food choice. Physiol Behav. 1999, 66(3): 511-515.
16. Dietz W., Gortmaker S. Do we fatten our children at the TV set? Obesity and television viewing in children and adolescents. Paediatrics 1985, (75): 807-812.
17. Department of Health. At least five a week. Evidence on the impact of physical activity and its relationship to health. A report from the chief medical officer. London: Department of Health 2004.
18. Canadian Society for Exercise and Physiology. Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines, 2011. Available at http://www.csep.ca/english/View.asp?x¼587.
19. Jordan A., Emily K. G. and Victor C. S. “Does adolescent media use cause obesity and eating disorders?” Adolescent medicine: state of the art reviews, 2008, (19) 3: 431-49.
20. Hagstromer M., Oja P., Sjostrom M. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ): a study of concurrent and construct validity. Public Health Nutr., 2006, 9(6):755-62.
21. National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences. Comparing the HEI-2015, HEI-2010, and HEI-2005. Available via https://epi.grants.cancer.gov/hei/comparing.html.
22. The Diet History Questionnaire III. Available via https:/www.dhq3.org/study/study_id=101/view-questionnaire/.
23. Pinto B. M., Marcus B. H. A. Stages of change approach to understanding college students’ physical activity. J Am Coll. Health, 1995, 44(1):27-31.
24. Keim N. L., Blanton C. A., Kretsch M. J. America's obesity epidemic: Measuring physical activity to promote an active lifestyle. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 2004, 104-9.
25. Nelson T. F., Gortmaker S. L., Subramanian, S. V., Cheung L., and Wechsler H. Disparities in overweight and obesity among US college students. American Journal of Health Behavior, 2007, 31, 363-373.
26. Harrison, K. and Cantor, J., The relationship between media consumption and eating disorders. Journal of Communication, 1997, 47: 40-67.
27. Pyle R. L., Neuman P. A., Halvorson P. A., Mitchell J. E. An ongoing cross-sectional study of the prevalence of eating disorders in freshman college students. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 1990, 10(6), 667-677.
28. Gore S. A., Foster J. A., DiLillo V. G., Kirk K., and West D. S., Television viewing and snacking. Eating Behaviors, 2003, 4, 399-40.
29. Harrison K. S. The relationship between media consumption and eating disorder symptomatology. Master’s thesis, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 1994.
30. Bowman S.A. Television-viewing characteristics of adults: correlations to eating practices and overweight and health status. Prev Chronic Dis 2006, 3(2):A38.
31. Oppert, J. M., Kettaneh A., Borys J. M., Basdevant A., Ducimetiere P., and Charles M. A., The relationships between indicators of physical activity, indicators of sedentary behavior and adiposity in French adults: The FLVS II study. Journal of Public Health, 2005, (14), 87-93.
32. Ballard M, Gray M., Reilly J., Noggle M., Correlates of video game screen time among males: body mass, physical activity, and other media use, Eat. Behav., 2009, (10) 161-167.
33. Kauer H., Choi W. S., Mayo M. S., Harris K. J. Duration of television watching is associated with increased body mass index. J Pediatr 2003, 143:506-11.
34. Thomson, M., Spence, J. C., Raine, K., Laing, L. The association of television viewing with snacking behavior and body weight of young adults. American Journal of Health Promotion, 2008, (22), 329-335.
35. Loud K. J., Hergenroeder A. C., Guidelines for Physical Activity and Sports Participation, In Neinstein, L.S., ed. Adolescent Health Care: A Practical Guide, Philadelphia PA: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2008, 264-296.