Main Article Content
Cell viability, Royal jelly, MTT assay, growth-stimulating activity, Mesenchymal stem cells
In this study cell proliferation potentials were evaluated of different royal jelly. Physical, chemical and palynological analysis were done at the royal jelly samples, which are collected 5 different regions (RJ1: Balıkesir 1, RJ2: Bursa 1, RJ3: Çanakkale 1, RJ4: Yalova 1, RJ5: Bursa 2) of Turkey. In addition to this, cell proliferation potentials of these different royal jelly samples were evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazoyl-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. All analysis results were found to vary from region to region. MTT results indicated that after 24h incubation, RJ2 and RJ4 dilutions significantly different from control. However, light microscopy analysis showed same groups caused less viability potential in adipose derived mesencymal stem cells after 72h incubation. On the other hand, the highest dilutions of RJ1 and RJ3 cause more cell death with IC50 potential after 72h incubation. Among all groups, the lowest concentration of RJ5 has been shown to have the best growth-stimulating activity on adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells. The results of cell viability test highlight the potential differences of royal jelly samples on stem cell growth stimulation.
2. Melliou E, Chinou I. Chemistry and bioactivities of royal jelly. Stud Nat Prod Chem 2014; 43: 261-290.
3. Wytrychowski M, Chenavas S, Daniele G, Casabianca H, Batteau M, Guibert S, Brion B. Physicochemical characterisation of French royal jelly: Comparison with commercial royal jellies and royal jellies produced through artificial bee-feeding. J Food Compos Anal 2013; 29: 126-133.
4. Salazar-Olivo LA, Paz-Gonzalez V. Screening of biological activities present in honeybee (Apis mellifera) royal jelly. Toxicol In Vitro 2005;19: 645-651.
5. Liu JR, Yang YC, Shi LS, Peng CC. Antioxidant properties of royal jelly associated with larval age and time of harvest. J Agr Food Chem 2008; 56: 11447-11452.
6. Fujiwara S, Imai J, Fujiwara M, Yaeshima T, Kawashima T, Kobayashi K. A potent antibacterial protein in royal jelly. Purification and determination of the primary structure of royalisin. J Biol Chem 1990; 265:11333-11337.
7. Melliou E, Chinou I. Chemistry and bioactivity of royal jelly from Greece. J Agr Food Chem 2005; 53: 8987-8992.
8. Tamura T, Fujii A, Kuboyama N. Antitumor effects of royal jelly (RJ), Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi 1987; 89: 73-80.
9. Malkoç M, Altay DU, Alver A, Ersöz Ş, Şen TM, Kural BV, Uydu HA. The effects of royal jelly on the oxidant-antioxidant system in rats with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced breast cancer. Turk J Biochem 2017; 43: 176-183.
10. Tokunaga KH, Yoshida C, Suzuki KM, Maruyama H, Futamura Y, Araki Y. Mishima S. Antihypertensive effect of peptides from royal jelly in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Biol Pharm Bull 2004; 27: 189-192.
11. Vucevic D, Melliou E, Vasilijic S, Gasic S, Ivanovski P, Chinou I, Colic M. Fatty acids isolated from royal jelly modulate dendritic cell-mediated immune response in vitro. Int Immunopharmacol 2007; 7: 1211-1220.
12. Kohno K., Okamoto I., Sano O., Arai N., Iwaki K., Ikeda M. Royal jelly inhibits the production of proinflammatory cytokines by activated macrophages. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2004; 68: 138-145.
13. Kanbur M, Eraslan G, Beyaz L, Silici S, Liman BC, Altınordulu Ş, Atasever AJE. The effects of royal jelly on liver damage induced by paracetamol in mice. Exp Toxicol Pathol 2009; 61: 123-132.
14. Ruoff K, Bogdanov S. Authenticity of honey and other bee products. Apiacta 2004; 38: 317-327.
15. Piana ML, Belligoli P, Persano Oddo L, Piperno SJA. Pollen analysis of royal jelly: contribution to analytical methods and characterization. Apiacta 2006; 41: 28-43.
16. Louveaux J, Maurizio A, Vorwohl G. Methods of Melissopalynology. Bee World 1978; 59: 139-157.
17. Terrab A, González AG, Díez MJ, Heredia FJ. Characterisation of Moroccan unifloral honeys using multivariate analysis. Eur Food Res Technol 2003; 218: 88-95.
18. Corvucci F, Nobili L, Melucci D, Grillenzoni FV. The discrimination of honey origin using melissopalynology and Raman spectroscopy techniques coupled with multivariate analysis. Food Chem 2015; 169: 297-304.
19. Özkök A., Özenirler Ç., Canlı D., Mayda N., Sorkun K. Monofloral Features of Turkish Honeys According to Mellissopalynologic, Total Phenolic Acid and Total Flavonoid Content. GUJS 2018; 31:713-723.
20. Luz CFP, Cestaro LG, Serrao JE, Message D, Martins MF, Alves MLTMF, Coello MCS, Teixeira EW. Using paynological evidence from royal jelly to mediate the spread of Paenibacillus larvae in Brazil, Hoehnea 2018; 45: 512-539.
21. Standard T. Royal Jelly Standard TS6666. In. Turkish Standardization Institute: Ankara, Turkey, 2000.
22. Meda A, Lamien CE, Romito M, Millogo J, Nacoulma OG. Determination of the total phenolic, flavonoid and proline contents in Burkina Fasan honey, as well as their radical scavenging activity. Food Chem 2005; 91: 571-577.
23. Dewanto V, Wu X, Adom KK, Liu RH. Thermal processing enhances the nutritional value of tomatoes by increasing total antioxidant activity. J Agr Food Chem 2002; 50: 3010-3014.
24. Apak R, Güçlü K, Özyürek M, Karademir SE. Novel total antioxidant capacity index for dietary polyphenols and vitamins C and E, using their cupric ion reducing capability in the presence of neocuproine: CUPRAC method, J Agr Food Chem 2004; 52: 7970-7981.
25. Sesta G. Determination of sugars in royal jelly by HPLC. Apidologie 2006; 37: 84-90.
26. DIN 10758. Analysis Of Honey - Determination of The Content of Saccharides Fructose, Glucose, Saccharose, Turanose And Maltose - HPLC Method. German Institute For Standardisation (Deutsches Institut Für Normung), 1997.
27. Bunnel AB, Flaat M, Gagliardi C, Patel B, Ripoll C. Adipose-derived stem cells: Isolation, expansion and differentiation. Methods 2008; 45: 115-120.
28. Niyaz M, Gürpinar ÖA, Günaydin S, Onur MA. Isolation, culturing and characterization of rat adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells: a simple technique. Turk J Biol 2012; 36: 658-664.
29. Carmichael J, DeGraff WG, Gazdar AF, Minna JD, Mitchell JB. Evaluation of a tetrazolium-based semiautomated colorimetric assay: assessment of chemosensitivity testing. Cancer Res 1987; 47: 936-942.
30. Davis PH. Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. University of Edinburgh, 1965.
31. ISO. Royal Jelly Specifications, 12824, Switzerland, 2016.
32. Sabatini AG, Marcazzan GL, Caboni MF, Bogdanov S, Almeida-Muradian L: Quality and standardisation of royal jelly. J ApiProd ApiMed Sci 2009; 1: 1-6.
33. Margaoan, R, Marghitaş LA, Dezmirean DS, Bobiş O, Bonta V, Catana C, Urcan A, Mureşan CI, Margin MG: Comparative Study on Quality Parameters of Royal Jelly, Apilarnil and Queen Bee Larvae Triturate. Bull UASVM Ani Sci Biotechnol 2017; 74: 51-58.
34. Kazemi V, Eskafi M, Saeedi M, Manayi A, Hadjiakhondi A. Physicochemical Properties of Royal Jelly and Comparison of Commercial with Raw Specimens. Jundishapur J Nat Pharm Prod 2019; 14: 1-6.
35. Kolayli S, Sahin H, Can Z, Yildiz O, Malkoc M, Asadov A: A member of Complementary Medicinal Food: Anatolian Royal Jellies, Their Chemical Compositions, and Antioxidant Prooperties. Evid-Based Compl Alt 2016; 21: 43-48.
36. Kösoğlu M, Yücel B, Gökbulut C, Konak R, Bircan C: The Effect of Harvesting Time on Some Biochemical and Trace Element Compositions of Royal Jelly. Kafkas Univ Vet Fak Derg 2013; 19: 233-237.
37. Sığ AK, Sığ ÖÖ, Güney M. Royal jelly: A natural therapeutic? Ortadogu Med J 2019; 11: 333-341.
38. Cornara L, Biagi M, Xiao J, Burlando B. Therapeutic properties of bioactive compounds from different honeybee products. Front Pharmacol 2017; 8: 1-20.
39. Wang J, Zhang W, Zou H, Lin Y, Lin K, Zhou Z, Qiang J, Lin J, Chuka CM, Ge R, Zhao S, Yang X. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid inhibiting the proliferation of fibroblast-like synoviocytes by PI3K-AKT pathway. Int. Immunopharmacol 2015; 28: 97-104.
40. Peng CC, Sun HT, Lin IP, Kuo PC, Li JC. The functional property of royal jelly 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid as a melanogenesis inhibitor. BMC Complem Altern M 2017; 17: 392-400.
41. Ramadan MF, Al-Ghamdi A. Bioactive compounds and health-promoting properties of royal jelly: A review. J Funct Foods 2012; 4: 39-52.
42. Kato A, Onodera M, Ishijima Y. Effect of royal jelly on development of genital organs in male mice. J Tokyo Vet Anim Sci 1988; 35: 1-4.
43. Watanabe K, Shinmoto H, Kobori M, Tsushida T, Shinohara K, Kanaeda J, Yonekura M. Stimulation of cell growth in the U-937 human myeloid cell line by honey royal jelly protein. Cytotechnology 1998; 26: 23-27.
44. Mosmann T. Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays. J Immunol Methods 1983; 65: 55-63.
45. Kamakura M, Fukuda T, Fukushima M, Yonekura M. Storage-dependent degradation of 57-kDa protein in royal jelly: apossible marker for freshness. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2001; 65: 277-284.
46. Kamakura M. Signal transduction mechanism leading to enhanced proliferation of primary cultured adult rat hepatocytes treated with royal jelly 57-kDa protein. J Biochem 2002; 132: 911-919.
47. Kunugi H, Ali AM. Royal jelly and its components promote healthy aging and longevity: From animal models to humans. Int J Mol Sci 2019; 20: 4662-4688.
48. Narita Y, Nomura J, Ohta S, Inoh Y, Suzuki KM, Araki Y, Okada S, Matsumoto I, Isohama Y, Abe K, Miyata T, Mishima S. Royal jelly stimulates bone formation: physiologic and nutrigenomic studies with mice and cell lines. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2006; 70: 2508-2514.