Types of Bread Preferred by Adult Individuals and Bread's Place in Daily Nutrition

Main Article Content

Havvanur Yoldas Ilktac https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7433-6370
Merve Sadik
Muazzez Garipagaoglu https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2172-1467


Bread, nutrition, health, diet, grains


Bread, one of the most consumed food by humankind throughout history, has a global importance in nutrition. The common belief in recent years that bread is fattening and is harmful to health causes bread to be excluded from daily nutrition. This study aims to determine the individuals’ bread preferences and the contribution of the bread consumed to daily nutrition. It was carried out in Turkey with 1766 volunteer participants aged between 18-65 years. The data were collected with a questionnaire form applied by face-to-face interview method. In order to determine the nutritional status, 2-day food consumption records were kept. The body mass index average of individuals was 26±8.25 kg/m2. The waist circumference averages of male and female participants were found as 97±12.97 cm, 92±16.13 cm, respectively. It was found that the most consumed bread was white bread (87.3%), followed by whole-grain bread (40.8%). It has been found that the consumption of whole grain bread is higher in women compared to men. Female participants’ whole-grain bread consumption was found to be higher than male participants, while male participants’ cornbread consumption was higher than female participants (p<0.00 and p=0.026). It was found that male participants consume 182.3±105.07 g of bread per day, while females 124.5±78.11 g. It was observed that bread constitutes 27.1% of total daily energy intake in male participants, while 22.1% in females and this difference was found to be statistically significant (p<0.001). These results reveal that bread is the main ingredient in nutrition for Turkish society. The type of bread, which makes up the majority of carbohydrates, is as important as the amount. It is thought that training on healthy consumption of bread at the national level, and national and public service announcements and government-backed activities can positively change the bread consumption habits of individuals.


Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 628 | PDF Downloads 353


1. Atik G. Osmanlı Dönemi Metinlerinde Ekmek ve Ekmekle İlgili Anlam Çerçeveleri. Akad Dil ve Edeb Derg. 2019;3(4):63–72.
2. Souki GQ, Reis VC, Moura LRC. The Behavior of Bakery Consumers. Organ Rurais Agroindustriais, Lavras. 2016;18(1):1–12.
3. Pol K, Christensen R, Bartels EM, Raben A, Tetens I, Kristensen M. Whole grain and body weight changes in apparently healthy adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;98(4):872–84.
4. Serra-Majem L, Bautista-Castaño I. Relationship between bread and obesity. Br J Nutr. 2015;113(2):29–35.
5. Adıgüzel E, Levent H, Çolakoğlu F. A Study on Bread Consumption of Well-Educated Individuals in Turkey: A Sample of University Staff. Pakistan J Nutr. 2019;18(3):226–32.
6. O’Connor Á. Bread consumption in the UK: what are the main attitudinal factors affecting current intake and its place in a healthy diet? Nutr Bull. 2012;37(4):368–79.
7. Turkey Nutrition and Health Survey [Internet]. Ankara; 2010. Available from: https://hsgm.saglik.gov.tr/depo/birimler/saglikli-beslenme-hareketli-hayat-db/Yayinlar/kitaplar/diger-kitaplar/TBSA-Beslenme-Yayini.pdf
8. Ulijaszek S. Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. Report of a WHO Consultation. J Biosoc Sci. 2003;35:624–5.
9. Williams PG, Grafenauer SJ, O’Shea JE. Cereal grains, legumes, and weight management: a comprehensive review of the scientific evidence. Nutr Rev. 2008 Apr;66(4):171–82.
10. Demirtaş B, Kaya A, Dağıstan E. Consumers ’ Bread Consumption Habits and Waste Status : Hatay / Turkey Example. Turkish J Agric - Food Sci Technol. 2018;6(11):1653–61.
11. Juntunen KS, Niskanen LK, Liukkonen KH, Poutanen KS, Holst JJ, Mykkänen HM. Postprandial glucose, insulin, and incretin responses to grain products in healthy subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;75(2):254–62.
12. Bautista-Castaño I, Serra-Majem L. Relationship between bread consumption, body weight, and abdominal fat distribution: evidence from epidemiological studies. Nutr Rev. 2012;70(4):218–33.
13. Rakıcıoğlu N, Tek Acar N, Ayaz A, Pekcan G. Food and nutrition photo catalog sizes and quantities. Ankara: Ata Ofset Printing. 2009.
14. WHO Body mass index (BMI). [cited 2020 Oct 3]; Available from: https://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/disease-prevention/nutrition/a-healthy-lifestyle/body-mass-index-bmi
15. Han TS, van Leer EM, Seidell JC, Lean ME. Waist circumference action levels in the identification of cardiovascular risk factors: prevalence study in a random sample. BMJ [Internet]. 1995;311(7017):1401–5. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.311.7017.1401
16. BEBIS Turkish Version Ebispro for Windows Data Bases: Bundeslebenmittelschlussell,11.3 and Other Sources. Stuttgart, Germany: Nutrition Information System, 2004;
17. Turkey Dietary Guidelines. Türkiye Beslenme Rehberi. TÜBER. Turkey Dietary Guidelines [Internet]. Ankara, Turkey: Republic of Turkey Ministery of Health; 2016. Available from: http://beslenme.gov.tr/content/files/Tuz/17_ocak_tu_ber_ingilizce_.pdf
18. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 22.0 SPSS Inc., Chicago, ILL, USA. Chicago, ILL, USA: SPSS Inc.;
19. Gallus S, Odone A, Lugo A, Bosetti C, Colombo P, Zuccaro P, et al. Overweight and obesity prevalence and determinants in Italy: An update to 2010. Eur J Nutr. 2012;52.
20. Dahmen R, Konings-Pijnappels A, Kerkhof S, Verberne S, Boers M, Roorda LD, et al. Higher body mass index is associated with lower foot health in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: baseline results of the Amsterdam-Foot cohort. Scand J Rheumatol. 2020 May;49(3):186–94.
21. Di Cesare M, Bentham J, Stevens GA, Zhou B, Danaei G, Lu Y, et al. Trends in adult body-mass index in 200 countries from 1975 to 2014: A pooled analysis of 1698 population-based measurement studies with 19.2 million participants. Lancet [Internet]. 2016;387(10026):1377–96. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30054-X
22. Organization WH. Waist circumference and waist-hip ratio : report of a WHO expert consultation, Geneva, 8-11 December 2008 [Internet]. Geneva PP - Geneva: World Health Organization; Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/44583
23. Cai L, Liu A, Zhang Y, Wang P. Waist-to-height ratio and cardiovascular risk factors among Chinese adults in Beijing. PLoS One. 2013;8(7):e69298.
24. Ural D, Kiliçkap M, Göksülük H, Karaaslan D, Kayikçioǧlu M, Özer N, et al. Data on prevalence of obesity and waist circumference in Turkey: Systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression of epidemiological studies on cardiovascular risk factors. Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars. 2018;46(7):577–90.
25. Critchley J, Capewell S, O’Flaherty M, Abu-Rmeileh N, Rastam S, Saidi O, et al. Contrasting cardiovascular mortality trends in Eastern Mediterranean populations: Contributions from risk factor changes and treatments. Int J Cardiol. 2016 Apr;208:150–61.
26. Aksoylu Z, Savlak N, Çile Y, Özlem Ç, Köse E. Determination of bread types consumption habits of individuals in the city center of Manisa. Gıda. 2014;39(3):147–54.
27. Gül A, Isik H, Bal T, Özer M. Bread consumption and waste of households in urban area of Adana Province. Electron J Polish Agric Univ Food Sci Technol. 2003;6(2):1–14.
28. Demir MK, Kartal H. A Survey Study Conducted on Individuals Consuming Different Types Of Bread in Konya Province. Electron J Food Technol. 2012;7(3):59–64.
29. Sandvik P, Kihlberg I, Lindroos AK, Marklinder I, Nydahl M. Bread consumption patterns in a Swedish national dietary survey focusing particularly on whole-grain and rye bread. Food Nutr Res [Internet]. 2014;58:24024. Available from: https://doi.org/10.3402/fnr.v58.24024
30. Elmadfa I, Meyer AL. Developing suitable methods of nutritional status assessment: a continuous challenge. Adv Nutr [Internet]. 2014;5(5):590–8. Available from: https://doi.org/10.3945/an.113.005330
31. Bel S, Van den Abeele S, Lebacq T, Ost C, Brocatus L, Stiévenart C, et al. Protocol of the Belgian food consumption survey 2014: objectives, design and methods. Arch Public Health. 2016;74:20.
32. Sette S, Le Donne C, Piccinelli R, Arcella D, Turrini A, Leclercq C. The third Italian National Food Consumption Survey, INRAN-SCAI 2005-06--part 1: nutrient intakes in Italy. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis [Internet]. 2011;21(12):922–32. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2010.03.001
33. Lopes C, Torres D, Oliveira A, Severo M, Alarcão V, Guiomar S, Mota J, Teixeira P, Rodrigues S, Lobato L, Magalhães V, Correia D, Carvalho C, Pizarro A, Marques A, Vilela S, Oliveira L, Nicola P, Soares S RE. Inquérito Alimentar Nacional e de Atividade Física, IAN-AF 2015-2016: Relatório de resultados. [Internet]. 2016. Available from: https://ian-af.up.pt/sites/default/files/IAN-AF Relatório Resultados_0.pdf
34. Abu-Saad K, Shai I, Kaufman-Shriqui V, German L, Vardi H, Fraser D. Bread type intake is associated with lifestyle and diet quality transition among Bedouin Arab adults. Br J Nutr [Internet]. 2009;102(10):1513–22. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114509990675
35. Lebbos N, Daou C, Ouaini R, Chebib H, Afram M, Curmi P, et al. Lebanese Population Exposure to Trace Elements via White Bread Consumption. Foods [Internet]. 2019;8(11):574. Available from: https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110574
36. Rippin HL, Hutchinson J, Evans CEL, Jewell J, Breda JJ, Cade JE. National nutrition surveys in Europe: a review on the current status in the 53 countries of the WHO European region. Food Nutr Res [Internet]. 2018;62. Available from: https://doi.org/10.29219/fnr.v62.1362
37. Steingrimsdottir L, Valgeirsdottir H, Halldorsson TI, Gunnarsdottir I, Gisladottir E, Thorgeirsdottir H, et al. National nutrition surveys and dietary changes in Iceland. Economic differences in healthy eating. Laeknabladid. 2014;100(12):659–64.
38. Aalipour F. Evaluation of Salt, Sodium, and Potassium Intake Through Bread Consumption in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province. Int J Epidemiol Res. 2019;6:60–4.
39. Loloei S, Pouraram H, Majdzadeh R, Takian A, Goshtaei M, Djazayery A. Policy analysis of salt reduction in bread in Iran. AIMS Public Heal. 2019;6:534–45.
40. Ovaskainen M-L, Reinivuo H, Tapanainen H, Hannila M-L, Korhonen T, Pakkala H. Snacks as an element of energy intake and food consumption. Eur J Clin Nutr [Internet]. 2006;60(4):494–501. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602343