Proximate composition, phytochemical screening and anti-hyperglycemic effect of elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius) tuber on alloxan induced diabetic rats

Main Article Content

Shaikh Shahinur Rahman
Mir Mohammad Muhsin
Md. Rezaul Karim
Md. Zubaer
Md. Hafizur Rahman
Shakh MA. Rouf


Diabetes, Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber, nutrients, phytochemicals, rats


Summary. Purpose: The objectives of this study were to explore the nutrient analysis of elephant foot yam tuber and also observe the anti-hyperglycemic effect on both diabetic and non-diabetic rats. Methods: Healthy adult Long Evans rats were grouped into four, and each group had six rats. Diabetes was induced intraperitoneally by injecting 140 mg/kg body weight of alloxan dose, and 500 mg/kg bd.wt of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius powder was administered orally for six weeks of both diabetic and non-diabetic experimental rats, and next three weeks supplementary feeding were pulled out. Results: The proximate nutritional composition showed that elephant foot yam is a good source of dietary complex carbohydrate, fiber, minerals such as- calcium, phosphorous, potassium and zinc as well as phytochemicals. This tuber was investigated for the presence of 25 anti-diabetogenic phytochemicals. Among them, 17 phytochemicals were detected in elephant foot yam but eight phytochemicals viz- anthraquinone, carotenoid, cardiac glycoside, glycoside, phlobotanin, phenol, saponin and tannin were not found. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) level was reduced remarkably (p<0.05) in diabetic rats after 1st week and were highly significant (p≤0.001) after 3rd week of experimental feeding. There was no significant change in the FBG levels of normoglycaemic animals. However, FBG was more sustainable even after withdrawn the supplementary feeding diet. Conclusion: Elephant foot yam tuber could be used as a medicinal food for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

Abstract 830 | PDF Downloads 385


1. Leroith D, Smith DO. Monitoring glycaemic control: the cornerstone of diabetes care. Clinical Therapeu 2005; 27(2): 1489-1499.
2. Sandhya S, Sudhakar K, Vinod KR, Banji D. Formulation and Evaluation of a herbal cream incorporated with crude extracts of Borassus flabellifer intended for analgesic and anti inflammatory activity. International Journal of Pharmacology and Technology 2010; 2(2): 67-74
3. Mukherjee PK, Maiti K, Mukherjee, Houghton PJ. Leads from Indian medicinal plants with hypoglycemic potentials. J. Ethnopharmacol 2006; 106:1-28.
4. Grover JK, Yadav S, Vats V. Medicinal plants of India with antidiabetes potential. J of Ethnopharmacol 2002; 81: 81−100.
5. Pradeep G, Agarwal AK, Lakashminarasimhaiah, Singh GK. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effect of Borassus flabellifer in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science 2015; 4(1): 1172-1184.
6. Behera A, Kumar S, Jena PK. A Review on Amorphophallus species: Important Medicinal Wild Food Crops of Odisha. Int. J. Pharm. Life Sci. 2014; 5(5): 3512-3516.
7. Madhurima P, Kuppast IJ, Mankani KL. A review on Amorphophallus paeoniifolius. International Journal of Advanced Scientific Research and Technology 2012; 2(2): 2249-9954.
8. Jayaraman A, Kunga MR, Ulaganathan P, Poornima R. Antioxidant potential of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius in relation to their phenolic content. Pharmaceutical Biology 2010; 48(6): 659-665, DOI:10.3109/13880200903241846.
9. Yadu ND, Ajoy KG. Evaluation of Anthelmintic activity of the Methanolic extract of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius Tuber. IJPSR 2010; Vol. 1, Issue 11.
10. Anindita SB, Sankhadip, Banerjee S. Anti-anxiety activity of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber in mice. Journal of pharmacy research 2013; 6:748-752.
11. Yadu ND, Mahor S, Kumar D, Wanjari M, Gaidhani S, Jadhav A. Gastrokinetic activity of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber in rats. J. Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2016; 5(1): 36-42.
12. Dey YN, Ghosh AK. Evaluation of anthelmintic activity of the methanolic extract of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber. Int. J. Pharm Sci Res. 2009; 1:117-21.
13. Pramod JH, Pournima AS, Siddhalingesh GP, Mandavkar YD, Khedkar AS. Hepatoprotective activity of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tubers against paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 2012; S238-S242.
14. Ravi V, Ravindran CS, Suja G. Growth and Productivity of Elephant Foot Yam (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst. Nicolson): an Overview. Journal of Root Crops 2009; 35(2):131-142.
15. Arup C, Saha B, Pal S, Bhattacharya A, Sen H. Quantitative and Qualitative Aspects of Elephant Foot Yam. International Journal of Vegetable Science 2009; 16 (1): 73-84. DOI: 10.1080/19315260903211852.
16. Lay MM, Karsani SA, Mohajer S, Malek SNA. Phytochemical constituents, nutritional values, phenolics, flavonols, flavonoids, antioxidant and cytotoxicity studies on Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl fruits. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014; 14:152. doi:10.1186/1472-6882-14-152.
17. Aguzue OC, Temilola AF, Abubakar TM, Jamal KM, Habibu AS. Comparative chemical constituents of some desert fruits in Northern Nigeria. Arch. Appl. Sci. Res. 2012; 4(2):1061-1064.
18. Rahman SS. Is elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius) tuber detrimental to patients with diabetes? (Or a myth?). Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews 2020; 14(5):1015-1016.
19. Singh A, Neeraj W. A Review on Multiple Potential of Aroid: Amorphophallus paeoniifolius. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res. 2014; 24(1), Jan – Feb, nᵒ 11, 55-60.
20. Shiyi O, Kin-chor K, Yan L, Liang F. In vitro study of possible role of dietary fiber in lowering postprandial serum glucose. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2001; 49(2):1026-1029.
21. Bhattacharya S, Christensen KB, Olsen LC, Christensen LP, Grevsen K, Færgeman NJ, Kristiansen K, Young JF, Oksbjerg N. Bioactive components from flowers of Sambucus nigra L. increase glucose uptake in primary porcine myotube cultures and reduce fat accumulation in Caenorhabditis elegans. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2013; 61(46):11033-40.
22. Rahman SS, Yasmin N, Kamruzzaman M, Islam MR, Karim MR, Rouf SMA. Anti-hyperglycemic effect of the immature endosperm of sugar palm (Borassus flabellifer) fruit on type 2 diabetes mellitus patients-a case study. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews 2020; 14:1317-1322.
23. Nkobole N, Houghton PJ, Hussein AA, Lall N. Antidiabetic activity of Terminalia sericea Burch, EX DC constituents. Natural Product Communications 2011; 6:1585–1588.
24. Shina D, Dwivedi C, Dewangan M, Yadav R, Rao S, Chandrakar K, Singh S, Roy A. Antidiabetic potential of herbal plants and polyherbal formulation. International Journal of Phytotherapy Research 2014, 4(3):28-49.