Comparison of Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Activities of Sweet and Bitter Apricot Kernels

Main Article Content

Gulsen Kaya
Merve Keskin


α-amylase, inhibition, phenolics, kernel, Diabetes mellitus


Fruits and their kernels have important phytochemical components for human health and nutrition. The fruits and their kernels have antioxidant effects by their seconder metabolites. Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) is an important fruit because of its functional properties with both its fruits and kernels. Therefore, in this study, total phenolic, flavonoid content, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and inhibition properties of α-amylase enzyme of fruit, sweet and bitter apricot kernels were investigated. Methanol extract of each part of this fruit was prepared respectively. Total phenolic content as 241.83±1.47; 118.15 ± 2.03 and 60.41 ± 0.97 mg GAE/100 g, flavonoid content as 177.05±1.68; 20.08 ± 0.63 and 32.16 ± 0.51 mg QE / 100 g; antioxidant capacity as 0.81±0.02; 0.66 ± 0.01 and 0.27 ± 0.02 mM Fe2+/ mL extract were determined respectively. IC50 values for alpha amylase inhibition were calculated as 1.30±0.02; 0.74 ± 0.01 and 3.17 ± 0.01 mg/mL for fruit, sweet and bitter kernel extract respectively. The extracts showed good amylase inhibition properties. It can be concluded that apricot fruit and kernels might be used as a food supplement in Diabetes mellitus.

Abstract 543 | PDF Downloads 712


1. Chen Y, Al-Ghamdi A.A, Elshikh M.S, Shah M.H, Al-Dosary M.A, Abbasi A.M. Phytochemical profiling, antioxidant and HepG2 cancer cells’ antiproliferation potential in the kernels of apricot cultivars. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 2020; 27:163–172.
2. Senica M, Stampar F, Veberic R, Mikulic-Petkovsek M. Transition of phenolic s and cyanogenic glycosides from apricot and cherry fruit kernels into liqueur. Food Chemistry 2016; 203: 483-490.
3. Singleton V.L, Rossi J.A. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic- phospho tungstic acid reagents. American journal of Enology and Viticulture 1965;16(3):144-158.
4. Singleton V.L, Orthofer R, Lamuela-Raventós R.M. Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of folin-ciocalteureagent. In Methods in enzymology 1999; 299:152-178.
5. Fukumoto L.R, Mazza G. Assessing antioxidant and prooxidant activities of phenolic compounds. Journal of Agricultural And Food Chemistry 2000;48(8):3597-3604.
6. Benzie I.F, Strain J.J. Ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay: direct measure of total antioxidant activity of biological fluids and modified version for simultaneous measurement of total antioxidant power and ascorbic acid concentration. In Methods in enzymology 1999:299;15-27. Academic Press.
7. Bernfeld P. Amylases, alpha and beta. Methods in enzymology.1955:149-158.
8. Kaya G, Keskin M. Biochemical Properties and Urease, α-amylase Inhibitory Effects of Ocimum basilicum L. (Reyhan). Journal of Medicinal Herbs and Ethnomedicine 2020: 06;52-55.
9. Keskin M. Chemical characterization of arabicgum- chitosan-propolis beads and determination of α –amylase inhibition effect. Progress in Nutrition 2020: 22(2); 562-567.
10. Vetter J. Plant Cyanogenic Glycosides. Toxicon 2000:38; 11-36.
11. Zagrobelny M, Bak S, Rasmussen A.N, Jørgensen B, Naumann C.M, Møller B.L. Cyanogenic Glycosides and Plant-Insect’’.Interactions Phytochemistry 2004:65;293-306.
12. Brimer L, Cicalini A.R, Federıcı F, Petruccıolı M. Amygdalin Degradation by Mucor Circinelloides and Penicillium Aurantiogriseum: Mechanisms of Hydrolysis Arch Microbiol. 1998;169:106-112.
13. Barceloux D.G. Cyanogenic Foods (Cassava, Fruit Kernels and Cycad Seeds). Medicinal Herbs, Toxic Plants, and Venomous Animals 2009;55:336-352.
14. Beasley D.M.G, Glass W.I. Cyanide Poisoning: Pathophysiology and Treatment Recommendations. Occupational Medicine. 1998; 48 (7): 427-431.
15. Lewıs J. Latrile.The Western Journal of Medicine. 1977;127:55-62.
16. Song Z, Xu X. Advanced Research on Anti-tumor Effects of Amygdalin. Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics 2014;10:3-7.
17. Moss M, Khalıl N, Gray J. Deliberate self-poisoning with Laetrile.CMA Journal 1981;125:1126-1127.
18. Sadoff L, Fuchs K, Hollander J. Rapid Death Associated with Laetrile Ingestion JAMA 1978; 239(15):1532.
19. Carter J.H, Mclafferty M.A, Goldman P. Role of the Gastrointestinal Microflora in Amygdalin (Laetrile)-Induced Cyanide Toxicity.Biochemical Pharmacology 1980;29:301-304.
20. Fan X.H, Zhang X.Y, Zhang Q.A, Zhao W.Q, Shi F.F. Optimization of Ultrasound Parameters and its Effect on the Properties of the Activity of beta-Glucosidase in Apricot Kernels. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 2018;52: 468-476.
21. Yiğit D, Yiğit N, Mavi A. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of bitter and sweet apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) kernels.Braz J Med Biol Res 2009; 42(4):346–352.
22. Gomaa E.Z. In vitro Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Antitumor Activities of Bitter Almond and Sweet Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) Kernels Food Sci. Biotechnol Food Sci. Biotechnol. 2013; 22(2):455-463.
23. Cui J, Gu X, Wang F, Ouyang J, Wang J. Purification and structural characterization of an glucosidase inhibitory polysaccharide from apricot (Armeniaca sibirica L. Lam.) pulp. Carbohydrate Polymers 2015; 121:309–314.
24. Al Rawi B.J.M, Al Ani L.M.A, Alywee A.K. Study of Dried Apricot Effect on Type 2 Diabetic Patients as a Hypoglycemic Material. Iraqi J. Comm. Med.2012;1.
25. Qin F, Yao L, Lu C, Li C, Zhou Y, Su C, Chen B, Shen Y. Phenolic composition, antioxidant and antibacterial properties, and in vitro anti-Hep G2 cell activities of wild apricot (Armeniaca Sibirica L. Lam) kernel skins Food and Chemical Toxicology 2019; 129: 354–364.
26. Nowicka P, Wojdyło A, Samoticha J. Evaluation of phytochemicals, antioxidant capacity, and antidiabetic activity of novel smoothies from selected Prunus fruits. Journal of Functional Foods. 2016; 25:397–407.